Financial Statements of the Government of New Zealand for the Year Ended 30 June 2016

Prepared, presented to the House of Representatives and published in accordance with Part 3 of the Public Finance Act 1989.

The Treasury has also prepared A Snapshot of the 2016 Financial Statements of the Government of New Zealand which is a high level presentation of key facts and figures of the financial year, intended to make the financial statements more user friendly and accessible.

Contents

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Ministerial Statement

Statement of Responsibility

Commentary

Independent Report of the Auditor-General

Audited Financial Statements

Supplementary Statements

Additional Financial Information

Glossary of Terms

fsgnz-year-jun16.pdf (2,840 KB) pp. (2),ii,1–162

Data and Charts - Commentary

  • Data and charts from Commentary section of the Financial Statements in MS Excel format.
fsgnz-year-jun16.xls (802 KB)

The 2016 Snapshot [of the Financial Statements of the Government] (Part 1)

The economy

Real gross domestic product growth annual average rate was 2.8% mainly due to robust growth in construction, household consumption and tourism.

In current dollar terms, the value of output increased 4.2% in the June 2016 year, up from 2.8% growth in the previous June year.

Annual average % change in GDP

Annual average % change in GDP.

Facts and figures – June year (compared to 2015)

  • $251.8 billion nominal GDP (↑ $10.2b)
  • $227.2 billion real GDP (↑ $6.1b)
  • 1,484,000 average full time equivalent employees (↑ 40,175)
  • $29.62 average ordinary time hourly rate (↑ 2.1%)
  • 5.2% average unemployment (↓ 0.2%)
  • 0.3% annual average inflation (↓ 0.3%)

Where does the Government's money come from?

Total revenue: $98.2b (39.0% of GDP)

Total revenue: $98.2b (39.0% of GDP).
  • 71% of revenue was from collection of tax (↑ $3.6b)
  • 83% of sales of goods & services are from SOEs (eg, NZ Post and listed companies)
  • 12% of total revenue was from other sources (eg, ACC, EQC, interest and fire service levies)

Core Crown tax revenue

  • $70.4 billion (↑ $3.8b)
  • 28.0% of GDP

Who pays income tax, and how much?

Who pays income tax, and how much?.

Next March tax year 3.6 million New Zealanders are expected to pay individuals tax of $31.2 billion – an average of $8,667 each

How was the money spent?

Total expenses: $95.9b (38.1% of GDP)

Total expenses: $95.9b (38.1% of GDP).
  • $73.9 billion core Crown expenses (↑ $1.6b)
  • 23% of all spending was by SOEs and Crown Entities

$52.9 billion was spent on welfare, health, education

Social welfare

$12.3 billion to provide 690,600 superannuitants with income support and $4.3 billion to 295,000 people receiving Jobseeker Support and Emergency Benefit, Sole Parent Support and Supported Living Payment.

Health

$11.8 billion of funding to District Health Boards, which contributed to services to meet the needs of each district’s population. The health and disability system provided over 13.2 million visits to GPs and over 1.1 million presentations to emergency departments.

Education

$13.2 billion helped to fund 96.6% participation in early childhood education, 83.3% of 18 year olds to achieve NCEA Level 2 or equivalent and 358,000 tertiary students.

OBEGAL surplus continued to grow

Operating balance before gains and losses (OBEGAL)

Operating balance before gains and losses (OBEGAL).
  • $1.8 billion surplus (↑ $1.4b)
  • Growth in tax revenue has outpaced growth in expenditure
  • Core Crown tax revenue was $3.8 billion more than last year
  • Core Crown expenses increased $1.6 billion from last year

Operating balance(after gains and losses)

Operating balance(after gains and losses).
  • Gains and losses can be volatile
  • Net losses for the year were $7.2 billion (↑ $12.6b)
  • Valuations of long term liabilities resulted in large losses for the ACC insurance liability and the
  • Government Superannuation Fund retirement liability
  • These losses combined with the OBEGAL surplus resulted in a $5.4 billion operating balance deficit (↑ $11.2b)

The 2016 Snapshot [of the Financial Statements of the Government] (Part 2)

Cash deficit increased core Crown net debt

Analysis of cash deficit $b
Operating cash surplus 3.3
Core Crown capital spend (4.6)
Cash deficit (1.3)
Capital Spend (↑ $1.2b)
 .

Core Crown net debt

Core Crown net debt.

$61.9 billion core Crown net debt

  • $1.2 billion increase from last year due to continuing cash deficits
  • Relatively flat as a percentage of GDP (0.5% decrease on last year)

Operating receipts → Operating spending → Capital spending → Cash deficit → Net debt

The Crown balance sheet

Assets $293b, Liabilities $197b.
  • The Crown balance sheet grew over the year with total assets reaching $293 billion
  • Liabilities stand at $197 billion
  • Financial assets and liabilities are particularly sensitive to changes in market rates such as share prices

Balance sheet sensitivities

Impact on operating balance of change in key market rates

Impact on operating balance of change in key market rates.

Balance sheet composition

Assets and Liabilites.
  • Social sector net worth $130.2 billion
    $149.4 billion of social sector assets (eg, schools, hospitals and social housing), an increase of
    $9.7 billion from last year.
    Social sector liabilities were $19.2 billion, a $1.6 billion increase driven mainly by an increase in the New Zealand ETS provision.
  • Financial sector net worth ($56.4 billion)
    Financial sector assets were fairly stable, with a $0.9 billion increase from last year to $87.9 billion.
    Financial sector liabilities grew $7.1 billion to $144.4 billion, mainly due to the ACC insurance liability increasing by $6.6 billion.
  • Commercial sector net worth $21.8 billion
    Commercial sector assets increased by $2.9 billion to $55.3 billion, while commercial sector liabilities ($33.6 billion) increased by $1.5 billion from last year.
    $1.1 billion of the growth in both assets and liabilities was as a result of Kiwibank loans and deposits increasing by similar amounts, while property, plant and equipment valuation uplifts and additions helped increase commercial sector assets.

Ministerial Statement

The New Zealand economy continues to grow, with real GDP increasing by 3.6 per cent in the year ended 30 June 2016. Despite international turbulence and global uncertainty, New Zealand is in the unusual position of enjoying solid growth, rising employment and real wages at the same time as low inflation.

The Government's programme to build a more productive economy is also delivering dividends in terms of the Crown's finances which have turned around markedly in recent years.

In the wake of the global financial crisis and the Canterbury earthquakes, the total Crown's annual operating balance excluding gains and losses (OBEGAL) was a deficit of $18.4 billion in the year ended 30 June 2011, equivalent to 8.9 per cent of national income.

The Government's strategy has been to restrain growth in spending while focusing on getting better results from existing spending, particularly for the most vulnerable New Zealanders. This strategy has led to an OBEGAL surplus of $1.8 billion being recorded for the year ended 30 June 2016, building on the $414 million surplus achieved last year.

Core Crown tax revenue was $70.4 billion, up 5.7 per cent from the previous year with all major tax types increasing, reflecting the growth in the economy over the year.

Core Crown expenses grew at a somewhat slower pace, up 2.2 per cent to $73.9 billion bringing expenses to 29.4 per cent of GDP, below the Government's long-term fiscal objective of 30 per cent. This is the first time since 2006 that core Crown expenses have been below 30.0 per cent of GDP.

In line with the positive OBEGAL result, the residual cash position improved to a deficit of $1.3 billion, down from $1.8 billion last year. As a result, while net debt rose in dollar terms, it fell as a percentage of GDP to 24.6 per cent, down from 25.1 per cent last year and 25.5 per cent in 2014.

The size of the Crown's balance sheet grew over the year, with assets growing by $13.5 billion to $292.7 billion driven mainly by increases in social sector assets. Total Crown liabilities were $197.2 billion, an increase of $10.2 billion from the previous year. Net worth attributable to the Crown, which is a key measure of balance sheet strength, increased by $2.9 billion to $89.4 billion.

Changes in the Crown's balance sheet can also have a significant impact on operating results. For example, net losses of $5.7 billion in the year to 30 June 2012 were followed by net gains of $11.3 billion the following year. In year ended 30 June 2016 net losses were $7.2 billion which led to an operating deficit (including gains and losses) of $5.4 billion.

On the asset side, volatility of markets following the Brexit referendum and a strengthening New Zealand dollar adversely affected investment returns.

On the liability side, the Government's long term liabilities (ACC claims liability and Government Superannuation Fund retirement plan) are particularly sensitive to changes in the risk-free discount rate used to value long-dated cash flows in present day dollars. Reductions in the discount rate (reflecting persistently low interest rates) led to valuation losses of $7.1 billion.

The Government will continue to focus on responsible fiscal management and repaying debt while investing in public services to get better results for New Zealanders, meet its net capital requirements and improve infrastructure.

 

Hon Bill English
Minister of Finance

30 September 2016

Statement of Responsibility

These financial statements have been prepared by the Treasury in accordance with the provisions of the Public Finance Act 1989. The financial statements comply with New Zealand generally accepted accounting practice andwith Public Benefit Entity Accounting Standards (PBE standards) for the public sector.

The Treasury is responsible for establishing and maintaining a system of internal control designed to provide reasonable assurance that the transactions recorded are within statutory authority and properly record the use of all public financial resources by the Crown. To the best of my knowledge, this system of internal control has operated adequately throughout the reporting period.

 

Gabriel Makhlouf
Secretary to the Treasury

30 September 2016

 

 

I accept responsibility for the integrity of these financial statements, the information they contain and their compliance with the Public Finance Act 1989.

In my opinion, these financial statements fairly reflect the financial position of the Crown as at 30 June 2016 and its operations for the year ended on that date.

 

Hon Bill English
Minister of Finance

30 September 2016

Commentary

Fiscal Overview

Fiscal Overview.

Introduction

These financial statements[1] contain the audited results for the financial year ended 30 June 2016. The results are compared against previous years and against two sets of forecastsfor the 2015/16 year:

  • Budget 2015 refers to the 2015 Budget Economic and Fiscal Update, and
  • Budget 2016 refers to the 2016 Budget Economic and Fiscal Update.

This commentary should be read in conjunction with the financial statements on pages 34 to 140.

Notes

  • [1]The financial statements of the Government of New Zealand refer to both core Crown and total Crown results. Core Crown is comprised of Ministers of the Crown, Departments, Offices of Parliament, the NZS Fund and the Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Total Crown is comprised of the core Crown, State-owned enterprises (including mixed ownership model companies) and Crown entities.

At a Glance

Table 1 - Financial results
Year ended 30 June
$million
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
30 June 2016
Budget
2015
Budget
2016
Core Crown tax revenue 55,081 58,651 61,563 66,636 70,445 68,868 69,682
Core Crown expenses 68,939 69,962 71,174 72,363 73,929 74,531 74,382
OBEGAL (excluding minority interests) (9,240) (4,414) (2,802) 414 1,831 176 668
Operating balance (excluding minority interests) (14,897) 6,925 2,939 5,771 (5,369) 2,990 (2,565)
Residual cash (10,644) (5,742) (4,109) (1,827) (1,322) (4,166) (2,115)
Gross debt1 79,635 77,984 81,956 86,125 86,928 87,162 86,783
   as a percentage of GDP 37.0% 35.6% 34.9% 35.6% 34.5% 34.9% 34.7%
Net debt2 50,671 55,835 59,931 60,631 61,880 65,597 62,272
   as a percentage of GDP 23.5% 25.5% 25.5% 25.1% 24.6% 26.3% 24.9%
Net worth attributable to the Crown 59,348 68,071 75,486 86,454 89,366 77,812 83,547
   as a percentage of GDP 27.6% 31.1% 32.1% 35.8% 35.5% 31.1% 33.4%
  1. Gross sovereign-issued debt excluding Reserve Bank settlement cash and Reserve Bank bills.
  2. Net core Crown debt excluding the NZS Fund and advances.

Headlines:

  • Tax revenue up $3.8 billion from a year earlier and higher than forecast (page 9).
  • Core Crown expenses were $1.6 billion higher than the year before, but less than expected (page 11).
  • The OBEGAL surplus of $1.8 billion continued its upwards trend, with an improvement of $1.4 billion from last year (page 13).
  • However, revaluations of the Crown's liabilities led to actuarial losses (caused by a reduction in the discount rate) and losses on the revaluation of Emission Trading Scheme units (caused by an increase in the carbon price) resulted in an operating balance deficit for the year of $5.4 billion (page 13).
  • While operating cash flows were positive, capital payments of $4.6 billion resulted in a residual cash deficit of $1.3 billion (page 15).
  • To fund the residual cash deficit, core Crown net debt increased in nominal terms by $1.2 billion, although it fell as a percentage of GDP (to 24.6%) (page 15).
  • Offsetting the operating balance deficit, revaluation uplifts on the Crown's property plant and equipment resulted in an increase in net worth attributable to the Crown of $2.9 billion (page 17).

A comparison of the year end results to Budget 2016 is included on page 20.

Summary

The Crown's OBEGAL surplus continued to grow...

The operating balance before gains and losses (OBEGAL) continued to increase. The improved result was due to further growth in nominal GDP (leading to a higher tax take) combined with lower expenditure growth.

The OBEGAL surplus was $1.8 billion this year (0.7% of GDP), compared to $0.4 billion for the previous year (0.2% of GDP).

Figure 1 - OBEGAL (excluding minority interests)
Figure 1 - OBEGAL (excluding minority interests).
Source:  The Treasury

... as nominal GDP rose...

Nominal GDP grew by 4.2% in the year to June 2016 to $251.8 billion. Total wage and salary income grew strongly during the year, with average wages and employment both up by more than 2% on average over the year, and total hours worked increased by an estimated 3%. The robust GDP growth was reflected in private consumption growth of 3.5%, plus strong contributions to economic growth from residential construction and inbound tourist spending, up by 16% and 17% respectively. The total population grew by 2%, boosted by a net influx of nearly 70,000 migrants in the year to June.

Figure 2 - Core Crown revenue and expenses
Figure 2 - Core Crown revenue and expenses   .
Source:  The Treasury

... leading to an increase in tax revenue...

This nominal GDP growth contributed to core Crown tax revenue being $3.8 billion (5.7%) higher than a year earlier with most major tax types increasing to reach $70.4 billion. As a share of the economy, core Crown tax revenue was 28.0% of GDP (compared to 27.6% last year).

... which continued to outpace growth in core Crown expenses … 

As a share of the nominal economy, core Crown expenses were equal in value to 29.4% of GDP (30.0% of GDP in 2015); in nominal terms however, core Crown expenses increased $1.6 billion (2.2%) to $73.9 billion.

The largest drivers of growth in nominal core Crown expenditure were New Zealand Superannuation benefits (as a result of indexation and an increase in the number of recipients), along with new spending allocated in Budget 2015, primarily in the areas of health and education.

Figure 3 - Operating balance (excluding minority interests)
Figure 3 - Operating balance (excluding minority interests)   .
Source:  The Treasury

… although liability valuations resulted in losses... 

The Crown's operating balance is particularly sensitive to changes in some key assumptions used to value assets and liabilities. For example, a 1% decrease in discount rates can add $9.1 billion to the ACC and Government Superannuation Fund (GSF) liabilities. Note 2 of the financial statements (page 48) discusses the key assumptions and judgements underpinning these financial statements.

Actuarial losses in relation to updated long-term liability valuations for ACC and GSF liabilities resulted in a combined actuarial loss of $7.1 billion (page 59). In addition, a loss of $1.5 billion was recorded on the valuation of outstanding units in the Emissions Trading Scheme (page 14). Offsetting these valuation losses, ACC made gains of $1.4 billion on its investment portfolio.

When these results are combined with the OBEGAL surplus the operating balance (after gains and losses) was a deficit of $5.4 billion ($11.2 billion lower than the 2015 surplus of $5.8 billion).

... that partially offset positive revaluations of Crown assets ...

Although the Government recorded an operating balance deficit of $5.4 billion, the Crown's property, plant and equipment revaluation reserve increased by $8.5 billion (mostly attributable to revaluation uplifts), resulting in net worth attributable to the Crown increasing by $2.9 billion to reach $89.4 billion.

Total assets increased by $12.9 billion to $292.2 billion, while liabilities reached $197.2 billion (up $10.2 billion from last year).

Increases in property, plant and equipment and financial assets such as Kiwibank loans contributed to the growth in assets while the valuation increases to liabilities discussed above (ACC, GSF and Emissions Trading Scheme) contributed to the growth in liabilities.

Figure 4 - Net worth attributable to the Crown
Figure 4 - Net worth attributable to the Crown   .
Source:  The Treasury

...while core Crown cash deficits reduced and net debt flattens

While the operating cash flow continued to improve this year (in line with the OBEGAL result), capital spending of $4.6 billion resulted in a residual cash deficit of $1.3 billion. The capital spend consisted of the net purchase of physical and intangible (eg, software) assets ($2.0 billion), new capital investment in Crown entities ($2.1 billion) and net advances ($0.5 billion).

Core Crown net debt increased by $1.2 billion from last year to reach $61.9 billion, largely a result of the residual cash deficit. However, as a percentage of GDP, net debt has fallen from 25.1% to 24.6%.

Figure 5 - Net debt
Figure 5 - Net debt   .
Source:  The Treasury

Revenue

Table 2 - Breakdown of revenue
Year ended 30 June Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
30 June 2016
Budget 2015 Budget 2016
$million              
Core Crown tax revenue 55,081 58,651 61,563 66,636 70,445 68,868 69,682
Core Crown other revenue 5,347 5,154 5,530 5,577 5,676 5,843 5,647
Core Crown revenue 60,428 63,805 67,093 72,213 76,121 74,711 75,329
Crown entities, SOEs and eliminations 22,918 22,506 22,106 22,299 22,038 22,681 22,185
Total Crown revenue 83,346 86,311 89,199 94,512 98,159 97,392 97,514
% of GDP              
Core Crown tax revenue 25.6% 26.8% 26.2% 27.6% 28.0% 27.6% 27.9%
Core Crown other revenue 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3%
Core Crown revenue 28.1% 29.2% 28.5% 29.9% 30.2% 29.9% 30.1%
Crown entities, SOEs and eliminations 10.6% 10.3% 9.4% 9.2% 8.8% 9.1% 8.9%
Total Crown revenue 38.7% 39.4% 38.0% 39.1% 39.0% 39.0% 39.0%

Total Crown revenue was $98.2 billion, an increase of $3.6 billion from a year earlier mostly due to higher core Crown tax revenue.

Core Crown Tax Revenue

Core Crown tax revenue was $70.4 billion, up $3.8 billion (5.7%) from the year before, mostly owing to an increase in the level of economic activity and the composition of that activity.

Total nominal GDP grew by 4.2% in the year to June 2016. However, not all components of GDP grew at the same rate. For example, total salaries and wages are estimated to have increased by 5%, owing to a mixture of employment growth and salary and wage rate growth, and the corporate tax result indicates that profit growth was also strong. On the other hand, growth in nominal domestic consumption was somewhat lower at around 3.5%.

Figure 6 - Core Crown tax revenue
Figure 6 - Core Crown tax revenue   .
Source:  The Treasury

As a result, all major tax types increased over the year, with three tax types making up most of the increase (Table 3):

  • Source deductions increased by $1.7 billion (6.8%). Total employment and salary and wages rates both grew by more than 2% on average over the year, and average hours worked also increased.
  • Goods and Services Tax (GST) increased by $1.0 billion (6.1%), largely owing to growth in domestic consumption of 3.5%, but boosted by strong growth in both residential investment (up 16%) and inbound tourist spending (up 17%).
  • Corporate tax increased by $0.9 billion (8.7%), mostly in relation to growth in taxable profits from the 2016 tax year.
Table 3 - Increase in core Crown tax revenue
Year ended 30 June ($ billion)
2015 core Crown tax revenue 66.6
Source deductions 1.7
GST 1.0
Corporate tax 0.9
Customs and excise duties 0.3
Other movements (0.1)
2016 core Crown tax revenue 70.4

Source:  The Treasury

As a share of the economy, core Crown tax revenue was 28.0% of GDP, compared to 27.6% last year (Table 4). Approximately half of the total 0.4% of GDP increase was a result of corporate tax growing at more than double the rate of growth of nominal GDP. Fiscal drag, ie, additional PAYE tax generated by the progressive personal income tax scale (higher marginal tax rates applying to higher incomes), added an estimated 0.1% of GDP to tax revenue. A 50% decline in Portfolio Investment Entity (PIE) tax slowed the tax revenue growth rate.

Table 4 - Increase in core Crown tax revenue
Year ended 30 June (% of GDP)
2015 core Crown tax revenue 27.6
Composition of GDP 0.4
Fiscal drag 0.1
PIE tax (0.1)
2016 core Crown tax revenue 28.0

Source:  The Treasury

Other Revenue

Other revenue includes other fees and levies (eg, ACC levies), revenue from operations of Crown entities (CEs) and State-owned enterprises (SOEs), interest revenue and dividend revenue.

Core Crown other revenue, at $5.7 billion increased by $0.1 billion, while the SOE and CE sectors (including eliminations) recorded revenue of $22.0 billion, $0.3 billion less than a year earlier (Table 2).

The decrease in the SOE sector was mostly attributable across multiple SOEs which recorded lower revenue which was largely offset by lower operating expenses. Within the CE sector, ACC had decreased revenue due to the reduction of ACC levies, but this was offset by increased revenue spread over the rest of the sector.

Figure 7 - Other revenue
Figure 7 - Other revenue   .
Source:  The Treasury

Expenses

Table 5 - Breakdown of expenses
Year ended 30 June  Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
30 June 2016
Budget
2015
Budget
2016
$ million              
Social security and welfare 21,956 22,459 23,026 23,523 24,081 24,275 24,296
Health 14,160 14,498 14,898 15,058 15,626 15,581 15,635
Education 11,654 12,504 12,300 12,879 13,158 13,134 13,215
Core government services 5,428 4,294 4,502 4,134 4,102 4,811 4,446
Law and order 3,338 3,394 3,463 3,515 3,648 3,582 3,691
Other core Crown expenses 12,403 12,813 12,985 13,254 13,314 13,148 13,099
Core Crown expenses 68,939 69,962 71,174 72,363 73,929 74,531 74,382
Crown entities, SOEs and eliminations 23,647 20,701 20,668 21,408 21,951 22,244 21,961
Total Crown expenses 92,586 90,663 91,842 93,771 95,880 96,775 96,343
% of GDP              
Social security and welfare 10.2% 10.3% 9.8% 9.7% 9.6% 9.7% 9.7%
Health 6.6% 6.6% 6.3% 6.2% 6.2% 6.2% 6.3%
Education 5.4% 5.7% 5.2% 5.3% 5.2% 5.3% 5.3%
Core government services 2.5% 2.0% 1.9% 1.7% 1.6% 1.9% 1.8%
Law and order 1.6% 1.6% 1.5% 1.5% 1.4% 1.4% 1.5%
Other core Crown expenses 5.8% 5.9% 5.5% 5.5% 5.3% 5.3% 5.2%
Core Crown expenses 32.0% 32.0% 30.3% 30.0% 29.4% 29.8% 29.7%
Crown entities, SOEs and eliminations 11.0% 9.5% 8.8% 8.9% 8.7% 8.9% 8.8%
Total Crown expenses 43.0% 41.4% 39.1% 38.8% 38.1% 38.7% 38.5%

Total Crown expenses were $95.9 billion in the latest year, $2.1 billion more than the year earlier. SOE expenditure decreased in line with decreases in SOE revenue while the core Crown and CE segments recorded expenditure increases. The core Crown segment recorded the largest increase of $1.6 billion.

Core Crown Expenses

Despite the nominal expenditure increase of $1.6 billion, core Crown expenses fell as a share of the economy to 29.4% of GDP (Figure 8).

Figure 8 - Core Crown expenses
Figure 8 - Core Crown expenses   .
Source: 

Table 6 shows the largest contributors to the increase in nominal core Crown expenses over the year, with the following key areas contributing to the increase:

  • New Zealand Superannuation benefits increased $0.7 billion, mostly a result of indexation and an increase in recipients of New Zealand Superannuation, from around 665,100 to 690,600.
  • Health expenses were $0.6 billion higher mainly as a result of additional funding going to District Health Boards for increased demand for services (both hospital and community based) and to help meet cost pressures and population changes.
  • Education expenses were $0.3 billion higher than the previous year mainly as a result of new allocations in Budget 2015 for schools operations (teacher salaries and operating grants), special education and early childhood education funding.
Table 6 - Movement in core Crown expenses
Year ended 30 June ($ billion)
2015 core Crown expenses 72.4
New Zealand Superannuation 0.7
Health expenditure 0.6
Education expenditure 0.3
Other movements (0.1)
2016 core Crown expenses 73.9

Source:  The Treasury

Other Expenses

The SOE and CE sectors (including eliminations) also recorded expenses that were $0.5 billion (2.5%) higher than the previous year, this result was mainly attributable to higher insurance expenses in ACC and EQC, which together increased $0.8 billion, mostly reflecting additional claims.

Offsetting this, SOE expenditure was lower and matched with a reduction in income as mentioned above.

  Operating Balance

Table 7 - Total Crown operating balance (excluding minority interests)
Year ended 30 June
$ million
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
30 June 2016
Budget
2015
Budget
2016
Total Crown OBEGAL (9,240) (4,414) (2,802) 414 1,831 176 668
Gains and losses:              
ACC actuarial gain/(loss) (2,942) 2,369 479 (1,352) (5,099) (3,065)
GSF actuarial gain/(loss) (3,896) 1,251 577 (322) (2,028) (898)
ETS/Kyoto net position 350 103 (324) (366) (1,503) (558)
Investment portfolios:              
     NZS Fund (204) 4,374 3,735 3,156 (76) 2,025 (573)
     ACC 944 1,796 730 2,397 1,420 285 1,192
     Earthquake Commission (53) 1
Other gains/(losses)1 144 1,445 544 1,844 86 504 669
Total Crown gains/(losses) (5,657) 11,339 5,741 5,357 (7,200) 2,814 (3,233)
Total Crown operating balance (14,897) 6,925 2,939 5,771 (5,369) 2,990 (2,565)
% of GDP              
Total Crown OBEGAL (4.3)% (2.0)% (1.2)% 0.2% 0.7% 0.1% 0.3%
Total Crown gains/(losses) (2.6)% 5.2% 2.4% 2.2% (2.9)% 1.1% (1.3)%
Total Crown Operating balance (6.9)% 3.2% 1.3% 2.4% (2.1)% 1.2% (1.0)%
  1. Other gains and losses includes the net surplus from associates and joint ventures

OBEGAL

The OBEGAL surplus continued to grow, increasing $1.4 billion from the previous year to $1.8 billion.

Figure 9 shows the composition of OBEGAL from the different segments of the Government. For the year ended 30 June 2016, the core Crown continued its upwards trend and was in surplus for the first time since 2008 (compared to a deficit of $0.1 billion last year), with higher tax revenue (5.7%) outpacing higher expenses (2.2%) compared to last year.

Figure 9 - Components of OBEGAL by segment
Figure 9 - Components of OBEGAL by segment.
Source:  The Treasury

The SOE segment remained relatively stable, achieving a surplus of $0.7 billion, compared with a surplus of $0.6 billion last year.

Offsetting these results, the Crown entity segment reported a deficit of $0.3 billion which compares to the previous year's surplus of $0.7 billion. Within this result, EQC's OBEGAL decreased by $0.7 billion mainly due to increased claims following the 14 February 2016 earthquake in Christchurch, in comparison in 2015 there was a large decrease in insurance expense following a re-estimation of the outstanding claims liability that was not repeated this year.

In addition to EQC's result, ACC's surplus reduced by $0.4 billion, mainly due to decreased levy revenue and increased insurance expenses.

Table 8 - NZS Fund results
  Year ended 30 June
($ million)
Actual
2016
Actual
2015
OBEGAL result 102 516
Gains and losses (76) 3,156
Operating Balance 26 3,672

Source: The Treasury

Operating Balance

Net gains and losses were a loss of $7.2 billion for the year. These losses more than offset the OBEGAL surplus and resulted in the Crown's operating balance was a deficit of $5.4 billion, $11.2 billion lower than last year.

The current year saw significant volatility in financial markets and exchange rates. Gains on financial instruments were $1.1 billion ($5.1 billion less than the previous year). ACC's investment portfolio recorded a gain of $1.4 billion while NZS Fund recorded a small net loss on financial instruments and associates of $0.1 billion. Overall the NZSF Fund recorded an operating balance surplus of $26 million (Table 8). Investment performance was generally lower than the previous year across all markets and the Brexit referendum result on 23 June 2016 resulted in unstable markets right before the end of the year. Additionally, the strengthening New Zealand dollar led to foreign exchange losses on marketable securities and cash held.

While gains on investments were positive, the current year was adversely impacted by actuarial losses of $7.1 billion in relation to long-term liability valuations for ACC insurance claims and Government Superannuation Fund (GSF) pensions. A decrease in discount rates, partially offset by lower inflation rates resulted in actuarial losses of $5.1 billion for ACC and $2.0 billion for GSF. In addition to the actuarial losses, losses in relation to the Emissions Trading Scheme provision were $1.5 billion largely as a result of increased carbon prices from $6.80 to $17.75 over the course of the current year (refer below).

Figure 10 - Operating balance
Figure 10 - Operating balance    .
Source:  The Treasury

The operating balance is particularly sensitive to balance sheet movements. Note 2 (page 48) of the financial statements discusses the key judgements and assumptions underpinning these financial statements.

New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS)

The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was established to encourage reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The scheme is used to assist New Zealand in meeting its international commitment to reduce New Zealand's net emissions of greenhouse gases to below business-as-usual levels. Forestry was the first sector to join the NZ ETS, on 1 January 2008.

Under the scheme the Government has created a limited number of tradable NZ units (NZUs) which can be allocated to, or surrendered by, emitters.

NZ ETS expenses arise when the Crown allocates NZUs to emitters for free, while revenue is accrued by the Crown as greenhouse gas emissions occur by emitters. The revenue or expense is recognised using the carbon price at the time the units were allocated or accrued. This revenue and expense is included in OBEGAL.

At any point in time the Government will have either a net provision (NZUs given away is greater than NZUs surrendered) or a net receivable (NZUs surrended is greater than NZUs given away). Revaluation of the stock of units due to carbon price movements is recorded as either a gain or loss (a gain when the carbon price decreases, and a loss when the carbon price increases).

The number of units outstanding at 30 June 2016 was 126.8 million (2015: 125.8 million). Over the year the carbon price increased by $10.95 going from NZD$6.80 at 30 June 2015 to NZD$17.75 at 30 June 2016, accounting for most of the $1.5 billion loss.

Table 9 - Movement in NZ ETS provision
Year ended 30 June Actual
Units
million
Price
per unit
NZD
Actual
$million
Opening provision 125.8 6.80 855
New provision recognised 12.2   163
Provision used during the period (11.2)   (271)
Movement in carbon price     1,503
Closing provision 126.8 17.75 2,250

Debt

Table 10 - Net debt[2] and Gross debt[3]
Year ended 30 June Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
30 June 2016
Budget
2015
Budget
2016
Net debt ($m) 50,671 55,835 59,931 60,631 61,880 65,597 62,272
Net debt (% GDP) 23.5% 25.5% 25.5% 25.1% 24.6% 26.3% 24.9%
Gross debt ($m) 79,635 77,984 81,956 86,125 86,928 87,162 86,783
Gross debt (% GDP) 37.0% 35.6% 34.9% 35.6% 34.5% 34.9% 34.7%
Residual cash ($m) (10,644) (5,742) (4,109) (1,827) (1,322) (4,166) (2,115)
Residual cash (% GDP) (4.9%) (2.6%) (1.7%) (0.8%) (0.5%) (1.7%) (0.8%)

Net Debt

After increasing over the past four years, net debt has flattened while falling as a share of the economy (24.6% of GDP versus 25.1% of GDP a year earlier). Net debt in nominal terms was similar to last year, with an increase of $1.2 billion this June year, as the core Crown continued to run a residual cash deficit albeit reduced from recent years.

Figure 11 - Net debt
Figure 11 - Net debt   .
Source:  The Treasury

The fiscal overview, on pages 4 and 5, summarises the link from the OBEGAL (a total Crown measure of total revenue less total expenses) to net debt (a core Crown measure of debt).

Residual Cash

The residual cash deficit was $1.3 billion, $0.5 billion less than last year. Table 11 summarises the contributors to the reduction in the residual cash deficit over the year.

Table 11 - Decrease in residual cash deficit
Year ended 30 June ($ billion)
2015 core Crown residual cash deficit (1.8)
Increase in tax receipts 3.4
Increase in operating payments (1.2)
Decrease in proceeds from share offer (0.6)
Increase in net purchase of investments (0.6)
Other movements (0.5)
2016 core Crown residual cash deficit (1.3)

Source: The Treasury

Tax receipts were $3.4 billion higher than last year, in line with the improvement in core Crown tax revenue as discussed on page 9.

Tax receipts grew faster than operating payments, leading to an operating cash surplus of $3.3 billion. Offsetting the operating cash surplus, capital spending totalled $4.6 billion, resulting in an overall cash deficit. Capital spending included:

  • Net purchase of physical assets of $2.0 billion, including $0.6 billion for the Ministry of Education in relation to school property, $0.4 billion for defence equipment and $0.2 billion for both the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Health, mostly related to Canterbury rebuild projects.
  • Net investments of $2.1 billion, the largest of which was the Crown's investment in state highways of $1.1 billion, with $0.4 billion also paid to Southern Response following a call on the Crown Support Deed (for more information refer to Note 28 on page 103).
  • Net increase in advances of $0.5 billion, which included $0.3 billion for student loans.
  • Last year's capital spend was reduced by the receipt of $0.6 billion from the Meridian Energy final instalment of the Government's share offer programme.

Gross Debt

Gross debt, which reflects the borrowings of the core Crown, was $0.8 billion higher than a year earlier at $86.9 billion (Figure 12). As a percentage of the economy, gross debt dropped 1.1% to 34.5% of GDP (35.6% of GDP a year earlier).

Figure 12 - Gross debt
Figure 12 - Gross debt   .
Source:  The Treasury

The increase in nominal gross debt was predominantly the result of an increase in the issuance of Government Stock more than offsetting the Crown's bond and bill repurchasing programme, and a reduction in derivatives in loss and other financial liabilities.

Crown's Borrowing Programme

The debt programme (Table 12) during the current year raised cash from the market of $2.8 billion. The Crown continued to issue bonds ($7.9 billion face value) while Treasury Bill issuance has returned to normal levels after being increased in the previous year to fund the April 2015 bond maturity. The proceeds of the programme are used for working capital requirements.

Overall, once the non-market cash flows (debt issued directly to agencies within the Crown) were included, net cash proceeds from borrowing were $2.5 billion.

Table 12 - Cash proceeds from debt programme
Year ended 30 June
$ million
Actual 2012 Actual 2013 Actual 2014 Actual 2015 Actual 2016 Forecast
30 June 2016
Budget 2015 Budget 2016
Issue of government bonds 15,146 15,458 7,716 8,058 8,079 8,462 8,343
Repayment of government bonds (7,602) (9,982) (2,196) (8,684) (1,779) (1,777) (1,779)
Net issue/(repayment) of short-term borrowing[4] 2,139 (5,404) (935) 4,179 (3,513) (2,400) (3,653)
Total market debt cash flows 9,683 72 4,585 3,553 2,787 4,285 2,911
Issue of government bonds
Repayment of government bonds (1,501) (499) (482) (139) (303) (138)
Net issue/(repayment) of short-term borrowing 430 100 (480) (100) (100) (100)
Total non-market debt cash flows (1,071) (399) (962) (239) (403) (238)
Total debt programme cash flows 8,612 (327) 4,585 2,591 2,548 3,882 2,673

Notes

  • [2]Net debt is defined as core Crown net debt excluding the NZS Fund and advances.
  • [3]Gross debt is defined as gross sovereign-issued debt excluding Reserve Bank settlement cash and Reserve Bank bills.
  • [4]Short-term borrowings consists of Treasury Bills and may include Euro-Commercial Paper.

Net Worth Attributable to the Crown

Table 13 - Net worth
Year ended 30 June
$ million
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
30 June 2016
Budget
2015
Budget
2016
Net worth attributable to the Crown 59,348 68,071 75,486 86,454 89,366 77,812 83,547
Net worth attributable to minority interests 432 1,940 5,211 5,782 6,155 5,223 5,755
Total net worth 59,780 70,011 80,697 92,236 95,521 83,035 89,302
Net worth attributable to the Crown % of GDP 27.6 31.1 32.1 35.8 35.5 31.1 33.4

Net worth attributable to the Crown was $89.4 billion as at 30 June 2016, an increase of $2.9 billion from a year earlier, continuing the upward trend. As a share of the economy, net worth attributable to the Crown was 35.5% of GDP, which was 0.3% lower than a year earlier.

While the Crown's operating balance was a deficit, revaluation uplifts of the Crown's property plant and equipment (details on the next page) resulted in an increase in the Crown's net worth.

Figure 13 - Net worth attributable to the Crown
Figure 13 - Net worth attributable to the Crown   .
Source: The Treasury

Composition of Net Worth Attributable to the Crown

Net worth attributable to the Crown (NWAC) primarily consists of the accumulation of past operating profits (referred to as taxpayers' funds) and revaluation uplifts in the value of the Crown's property assets (the PPE revaluation reserve).

Figure 14 shows that, while the level of NWAC has recovered from the decline which began in 2008, the composition of net worth is quite different. From 2006 the PPE revaluation reserve has gone from being 51% of NWAC to 85% in 2016, after peaking at 94% in 2012. On a nominal basis the PPE revaluation reserve has remained fairly stable, with larger growth in the last two years mainly as a result of increases in land prices.

Figure 14 - Composition of Net worth attributable to the Crown
Figure 14 - Composition of Net worth attributable to the Crown   .
Source: The Treasury

Taxpayers' funds however, which is directly affected by the operating balance, decreased sharply since deficits began to be recorded in 2009, before increasing in the last few years. However, the $5.4 billion operating balance deficit recorded this year has resulted in a further decline.

This change in composition suggests that the NWAC is currently more reliant on property prices than operating results.

Total Crown Balance Sheet

Table 14 - Composition of the statement of financial position[5]

Year ended 30 June
$ million
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
30 June 2016
Budget
2015
Budget
2016
Social assets 121,218 124,348 133,158 139,706 149,419 137,066 141,254
Financial assets 72,500 72,378 74,636 87,039 87,921 83,200 85,739
Commercial assets 46,600 47,690 49,030 52,469 55,339 52,510 53,400
Total assets 240,318 244,416 256,824 279,214 292,679 272,776 280,393
Social liabilities 17,600 16,140 17,015 17,625 19,223 17,546 17,769
Financial liabilities 134,838 130,052 129,589 137,218 144,354 138,183 139,959
Commercial liabilities 28,100 28,213 29,523 32,135 33,581 34,012 33,364
Total liabilities 180,538 174,405 176,127 186,978 197,158 189,741 191,091
Net worth 59,780 70,011 80,697 92,236 95,521 83,035 89,302
Minority interests (432) (1,940) (5,211) (5,782) (6,155) (5,223) (5,755)
Net worth attributable to the Crown 59,348 68,071 75,486 86,454 89,366 77,812 83,547

Total Crown assets were $292.7 billion as at 30 June 2016, a $13.5 billion increase since last year. This growth was largely in social sector assets ($9.7 billion), commercial assets grew by $2.8 billion and financial assets by $0.9 billion.

Figure 15 - Total Crown balance sheet
Figure 15 - Total Crown balance sheet.
Source: The Treasury

Total Crown liabilities were $197.2 billion, an increase of $10.2 billion from the previous year. The growth was largely in relation to financial sector ($7.1 billion), social sector liabilities grew by $1.6 billion and commercial liabilities grew by $1.5 billion.

Social Balance Sheet

Social sector net worth at $130.2 billion was $8.1 billion higher than last year, driven largely by an increase in assets.

Figure 16 - Social balance sheet
Figure 16 - Social balance sheet.
Source: The Treasury

The Crown's social assets were valued at $149.4 billion, a $9.7 billion increase since last year, and made up just over 50% of the Crown's total assets. The largest uplifts related to the following:

  • The state housing portfolio increased by $3.3 billion of which $2.7 billion relates to land. The land increase mostly related to Auckland stock reflecting the strength of this market.
  • The value of state highways (including land) increased by $1.8 billion, mainly due to development of new and improvement of state highway assets.

Social liabilities were $19.2 billion, a $1.6 billion increase compared to last year mainly driven by an increase in the New Zealand ETS provision (refer page 14).

Financial Balance Sheet

Financial sector net worth at -$56.4 billion was $6.6 billion weaker than last year. The financial sector includes the Treasury's New Zealand Debt Management Office (NZDMO) which manages the Crown's bond programme and therefore holds the majority of the Crown's debt (while the assets funded by the debt are largely in the social sector).

Figure 17 - Financial balance sheet
Figure 17 - Financial balance sheet.
Source: The Treasury

The value of financial assets and financial liabilities are particularly sensitive to changes in market prices. Note 2, on pages 48 to 52, sets out some of the sensitivities of the key assumptions regarding these assets and liabilities.

The Crown's financial sector assets were valued at $87.9 billion, a $0.9 billion increase compared to last year. New Zealand equities held by the large investment portfolios (eg, NZSF and ACC) saw growth over the year while international equities held had poor results given concerns around weak global growth, continued effectiveness of quantitative easing programmes and geopolitical events such as Brexit.

Financial sector liabilities were $144.4 billion, an increase of $7.1 billion from the previous year. The main drivers of growth in financial liabilities were the following:

  • ACC's insurance liability increased this year by $6.6 billion from $32.5 billion to $39.1 billion. The key drivers of this increase were the discount rate reduction, partly offset by various inflation rates being lower than expected. For further information on ACC's inflation assumptions see Note 22 insurance liabilities.
  • Earthquake-related insurance liabilities of EQC and Southern Response were $0.5 billion and $0.4 billion lower respectively as insurance claims were paid out during the year.

Commercial Balance Sheet

Commercial sector net worth at $21.8 billion increased by $1.4 billion compared to last year.

Figure 18 - Commercial balance sheet
Figure 18 - Commercial balance sheet.
Source: The Treasury

The Crown's commercial assets were valued at $55.3 billion, a $2.9 billion increase over the year. A large component of this increase related to Kiwibank loans ($1.1 billion increase), along with increases due to property, plant and equipment valuation uplifts and additions across the sector.

Commercial liabilities valued at $33.6 billion were $1.5 billion higher than the previous year, primarily due to an increase in deposits held by Kiwibank ($1.1 billion), matched by an increase in its lending.

Notes

  • [5]Based on three different sectors as examined in the 2014 Investment Statement. The glossary on page 160 explains the definition of these three sectors.

Year End Results Compared to Budget 2016

The Budget Economic and Fiscal Update 2016 (Budget 2016) was published on 26 May 2016 and is the most recent set of forecasts. Estimated Actuals refers to the latest forecasts published shortly before year end, for any given year.

Table 15 - Comparison to Budget 2016
Year ended 30 June  Actual 2016 Budget 2016
30 June 2016
Variance to
Budget 2016
$m
Variance to
Budget 2016
%
$ million  
Core Crown tax revenue 70,445 69,682 763 1.1
Core Crown expenses 73,929 74,382 453 0.6
OBEGAL (excluding minority interests) 1,831 668 1,163 174.1
Operating balance (excluding minority interests) (5,369) (2,565) (2,804) (109.3)
Residual cash (1,322) (2,115) 793 37.5
Gross debt 86,928 86,783 (145) (0.2)
          as a percentage of GDP 34.5% 34.7%
Net debt 61,880 62,272 392 0.6
          as a percentage of GDP 24.6% 24.9%
Net worth attributable to the Crown 89,366 83,547 5,819 7.0
          as a percentage of GDP 35.5% 33.4%

The 2016 results were mostly favourable compared to Budget 2016, with the notable exception of operating balance.

Table 16 - Core Crown tax revenue compared to Budget 2016
Year ended 30 June ($ billion)
Budget 2016 core Crown tax revenue 69.7
Source deductions 0.4
Customs and excise duties 0.2
Corporate tax 0.1
GST 0.1
Interest RWT (0.1)
Actual 2016 core Crown tax revenue 70.4

Source: The Treasury

Core Crown Tax Revenue

Tax revenue was stronger than expected, as the economy grew in nominal terms by 0.7% more than forecast. In addition, net migration and labour force participation were slightly higher than expected.

Core Crown tax revenue was $0.8 billion (1.1%) higher than expected, with the largest differences being:

  • Source deductions: $0.4 billion (1.7%) higher than forecast due mainly to higher than expected growth in total employment, and salaries and wages.
  • Customs and excise duties: $0.2 billion (3.5%) higher than forecast due mainly to a temporary change in the monthly pattern of tobacco duty revenue, which has brought forward an estimated $0.1 billion of revenue from 2016/17 to 2015/16, and higher than forecast fuel duty, mainly from higher than expected petrol consumption.
  • Corporate tax: $0.1 billion (1.0%) higher than forecast mainly owing to above forecast terminal tax revenue. This was partly offset by lower than forecast tax from Portfolio Investment Entities.
  • Goods and services tax: $0.1 billion (0.4% higher than forecast, related to broad-based and above-forecast growth in private consumption, in-bound tourist spending and residential investment.
  • Resident withholding tax was $0.1 billion (3.7%) lower than forecast, mainly owing to lower than forecast interest rates.

Overall the tax variance to forecast is not significantly larger than recent forecasts (Figure 19).

Figure 19 - Core Crown tax revenue variance to Estimated Actuals
Figure 19 - Core Crown tax revenue variance to Estimated Actuals.
Source: The Treasury

Core Crown Expenses

Core Crown expenses were $0.5 billion (0.6%) lower than expected. As with core Crown tax revenue, the forecast variance is reasonable, at a similar level to the previous year (Figure 20).

Figure 20 - Core Crown expenses variance to Estimated Actuals
Figure 20 - Core Crown expenses variance to Estimated Actuals   .
Source: The Treasury

The lower than forecast result was largely due to lower than forecast impairment of tax receivables by Inland Revenue of $328 million partly offset by higher than forecast impairment on student loans of $91 million as well as lower than forecast Ministry of Social Development expenses of $174 million mainly due to a reversal of impairment of social benefit receivables.

OBEGAL

The OBEGAL surplus was $1.2 billion higher than expected. Both core Crown tax revenue and core Crown expenses were close to forecast but, when combined, had a significant impact on the OBEGAL result (increasing OBEGAL by $1.3 billion).

Operating Balance

The total Crown operating balance was $2.8 billion lower than expected. More than offsetting the favourable OBEGAL result ($1.2 billion), ACC and GSF incurred higher than forecast actuarial losses due to lower discount rates ($2.0 billion and $1.1 billion respectively) while losses on the Emissions Trading Scheme were $0.9 billion higher than forecast due to an increased carbon price.

Residual Cash

The residual cash deficit was $0.8 billion lower due in part to higher than forecast tax receipts ($0.7 billion). Operating payments were $0.4 billion lower than forecast, this was partly offset by higher than forecast capital payments ($0.3 billion).

Net Debt

Net debt at $61.9 billion (24.6% of GDP) was $0.4 billion below forecast mainly due to the more favourable residual cash mentioned above.

Gross Debt

Gross debt at $86.9 billion (34.5% of GDP) was close to forecast.

Net Worth Attributable to the Crown

The net worth attributable to the Crown was $5.8 billion stronger than expected mainly due to revaluation uplifts of the Crown's property, plant and equipment (that were not forecast) more than offsetting the operating

Core Crown Expenses Compared to Budget 2015

Government budget spending decisions tend to occur some 15 months prior to the actual results being known. For example, spending decisions for the current financial year were part of the Budget 2015 process in early 2015.

Figure 21 - Core Crown expenses compared to Original Budget
Figure 21 - Core Crown expenses compared to Original Budget.
Source: The Treasury

It is therefore useful to compare the actual results back to the point at which the decisions were made (often referred to as the Original Budget). In the past a large portion of the variances have represented significant one-off events (such as the Canterbury earthquakes and the impact of the deposit guarantee scheme). Furthermore, debt impairments have tended to be volatile and difficult to predict.

In addition, departments tend to base their expense forecasts on the level of appropriated expenditure (ie, the amount of authorised spending) even though historically, most departments tend to spend below their upper limits.

In the current year the variance to original budget was $602 million. A large portion of this variance related to debt impairments, which were $530 million less than the original budget.

At each Budget a high level adjustment (referred to as the “top down” adjustment) is made to reflect the fact that actual expenditure trends below individual agency budgets. This top down adjustment has increased over the past few years to counter this over forecasting.

When debt impairments and costs associated with one-off large events such as the Canterbury rebuild are excluded, the resulting “adjusted variance” provides a useful tool for assessing forecasting performance over time (Figure 22).

Figure 22 - Core Crown expenses total variance versus underlying variance
Figure 22 - Core Crown expenses total variance versus underlying variance   .
Source:  The Treasury

Historical Financial Information

Historical Financial Information
Year ended
30 June
$ million
2006
Actual
2007
Actual
2008
Actual
2009
Actual
2010
Actual
2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Actual
Statement of financial performance  
Core Crown tax revenue 50,973 53,477 56,747 54,681 50,744 51,557 55,081 58,651 61,563 66,636 70,445
Core Crown other revenue 4,526 4,494 4,828 4,510 5,013 5,642 5,347 5,154 5,530 5,577 5,676
Core Crown revenue 55,499 57,971 61,575 59,191 55,757 57,199 60,428 63,805 67,093 72,213 76,121
Crown entities, SOE revenue and eliminations 15,690 16,378 19,660 20,024 18,509 24,013 22,918 22,506 22,106 22,299 22,038
Total Crown revenue 71,189 74,349 81,235 79,215 74,266 81,212 83,346 86,311 89,199 94,512 98,159
Social security and welfare 15,451 16,621 17,730 19,189 20,814 21,724 21,956 22,459 23,026 23,523 24,081
Health 9,547 10,355 11,297 12,368 13,128 13,753 14,160 14,498 14,898 15,058 15,626
Education 9,914 9,269 9,551 11,455 11,724 11,650 11,654 12,504 12,300 12,879 13,158
Core government services 2,507 4,817 3,371 5,293 2,974 5,563 5,428 4,294 4,502 4,134 4,102
Law and order 2,146 2,606 2,797 2,992 3,103 3,312 3,338 3,394 3,463 3,515 3,648
Other core Crown expenses 9,519 10,096 12,007 12,415 11,811 14,097 12,403 12,813 12,985 13,254 13,314
Core Crown expenses 49,084 53,764 56,753 63,711 63,554 70,099 68,939 69,962 71,174 72,363 73,929
Crown entities, SOE expenses and eliminations 15,015 14,725 18,845 19,397 17,027 29,509 23,647 20,701 20,668 21,408 21,951
Total Crown expenses 64,098 68,489 75,598 83,108 80,581 99,608 92,586 90,663 91,842 93,771 95,880
OBEGAL (excluding minority interests) 7,091 5,860 5,637 (3,893) (6,315) (18,396) (9,240) (4,414) (2,802) 414 1,831
Gains/(losses) 2,451 2,162 (3,253) (6,612) 1,806 5,036 (5,657) 11,339 5,741 5,357 (7,200)
Operating balance (excluding minority interests) 9,542 8,022 2,384 (10,505) (4,509) (13,360) (14,897) 6,925 2,939 5,771 (5,369)
Statement of financial position  
Property, plant and equipment 89,141 95,598 103,329 110,135 113,330 114,854 108,584 109,833 116,306 124,558 134,499
Financial assets 66,396 73,718 85,063 93,359 95,971 115,362 116,178 118,779 123,918 135,787 138,255
Other assets 9,503 11,031 12,443 13,657 14,054 14,999 15,556 15,804 16,600 18,869 19,925
Total assets 165,040 180,347 200,835 217,151 223,355 245,215 240,318 244,416 256,824 279,214 292,679
Borrowings 40,027 41,898 46,110 61,953 69,733 90,245 100,534 100,087 103,419 112,580 113,956
Other liabilities 41,042 41,622 49,211 55,683 58,634 74,083 80,004 74,318 72,708 74,398 83,202
Total liabilities 81,069 83,520 95,321 117,636 128,367 164,328 180,538 174,405 176,127 186,978 197,158
Minority interests 293 369 382 447 402 308 432 1,940 5,211 5,782 6,155
Net worth attributable to the Crown 83,678 96,458 105,132 99,068 94,586 80,579 59,348 68,071 75,486 86,454 89,366
Cash position  
Core Crown residual cash 2,985 2,793 2,057 (8,639) (9,000) (13,343) (10,644) (5,742) (4,109) (1,827) (1,322)
Debt Indicators  
Net debt 16,163 13,380 10,258 17,119 26,738 40,128 50,671 55,835 59,931 60,631 61,880
Gross debt 33,903 30,647 31,390 43,356 53,591 72,420 79,635 77,984 81,956 86,125 86,928

Historical Financial Information (continued)

Historical Financial Information (continued)
Year ended
30 June
as % of GDP
2006
Actual
2007
Actual
2008
Actual
2009
Actual
2010
Actual
2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Actual
Nominal GDP (revised) 164,678 175,456 189,138 189,523 196,698 205,861 215,348 218,817 235,033 241,597 251,760
Statement of financial performance  
Core Crown tax revenue 31.0% 30.5% 30.0% 28.9% 25.8% 25.0% 25.6% 26.8% 26.2% 27.6% 28.0%
Core Crown other revenue 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.7% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3%
Core Crown revenue 33.7% 33.0% 32.6% 31.2% 28.3% 27.8% 28.1% 29.2% 28.5% 29.9% 30.2%
Crown entities, SOE and elimination revenue 9.5% 9.3% 10.4% 10.6% 9.4% 11.7% 10.6% 10.3% 9.4% 9.2% 8.8%
Total Crown revenue 43.2% 42.4% 43.0% 41.8% 37.8% 39.4% 38.7% 39.4% 38.0% 39.1% 39.0%
Social security and welfare 9.4% 9.5% 9.4% 10.1% 10.6% 10.6% 10.2% 10.3% 9.8% 9.7% 9.6%
Health 5.8% 5.9% 6.0% 6.5% 6.7% 6.7% 6.6% 6.6% 6.3% 6.2% 6.2%
Education 6.0% 5.3% 5.0% 6.0% 6.0% 5.7% 5.4% 5.7% 5.2% 5.3% 5.2%
Core government services 1.5% 2.7% 1.8% 2.8% 1.5% 2.7% 2.5% 2.0% 1.9% 1.7% 1.6%
Law and order 1.3% 1.5% 1.5% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.5% 1.5% 1.4%
Other core Crown expenses 5.8% 5.8% 6.3% 6.6% 6.0% 6.8% 5.8% 5.9% 5.5% 5.5% 5.3%
Core Crown expenses 29.8% 30.6% 30.0% 33.6% 32.3% 34.1% 32.0% 32.0% 30.3% 30.0% 29.4%
Crown entities, SOE and elimination expenses 9.1% 8.4% 10.0% 10.2% 8.7% 14.3% 11.0% 9.5% 8.8% 8.9% 8.7%
Total Crown expenses 38.9% 39.0% 40.0% 43.9% 41.0% 48.4% 43.0% 41.4% 39.1% 38.8% 38.1%
OBEGAL (excluding minority interests) 4.3% 3.3% 3.0% -2.1% -3.2% -8.9% -4.3% -2.0% -1.2% 0.2% 0.7%
Gains/(losses) 1.5% 1.2% -1.7% -3.5% 0.9% 2.4% -2.6% 5.2% 2.4% 2.2% -2.9%
Operating balance (excluding minority interests) 5.8% 4.6% 1.3% -5.5% -2.3% -6.5% -6.9% 3.2% 1.3% 2.4% -2.1%
Statement of financial position  
Property, plant and equipment 54.1% 54.5% 54.6% 58.1% 57.6% 55.8% 50.4% 50.2% 49.5% 51.6% 53.4%
Financial assets and sovereign receivables 40.3% 42.0% 45.0% 49.3% 48.8% 56.0% 53.9% 54.3% 52.7% 56.2% 54.9%
Other assets 5.8% 6.3% 6.6% 7.2% 7.1% 7.3% 7.2% 7.2% 7.1% 7.8% 7.9%
Total assets 100.2% 102.8% 106.2% 114.6% 113.6% 119.1% 111.6% 111.7% 109.3% 115.6% 116.3%
Borrowings 24.3% 23.9% 24.4% 32.7% 35.5% 43.8% 46.7% 45.7% 44.0% 46.6% 45.3%
Other liabilities 24.9% 23.7% 26.0% 29.4% 29.8% 36.0% 37.2% 34.0% 30.9% 30.8% 33.0%
Total liabilities 49.2% 47.6% 50.4% 62.1% 65.3% 79.8% 83.8% 79.7% 74.9% 77.4% 78.3%
Minority interests 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.9% 2.2% 2.4% 2.4%
Net worth attributable to the Crown 50.8% 55.0% 55.6% 52.3% 48.1% 39.1% 27.6% 31.1% 32.1% 35.8% 35.5%
Cash position  
Core Crown residual cash 1.8% 1.6% 1.1% -4.6% -4.6% -6.5% -4.9% -2.6% -1.7% -0.8% -0.5%
Debt Indicators  
Net debt 9.8% 7.6% 5.4% 9.0% 13.6% 19.5% 23.5% 25.5% 25.5% 25.1% 24.6%
Gross debt 20.6% 17.5% 16.6% 22.9% 27.2% 35.2% 37.0% 35.6% 34.9% 35.6% 34.5%

Independent Report of the Auditor-General

To the Readers of the Financial Statements of the Government of New Zealand for the Year Ended 30 June 2016

Opinion

I have audited the financial statements of the Government of New Zealand (the financial statements of the Government) for the year ended 30 June 2016 using my staff, resources and appointed auditors and their staff. The financial statements of the Government on pages 34 to 151 comprise:

  • the annual financial statements that include the statement of financial position as at 30 June 2016, the statement of financial performance,analysis of expenses by functional classification,statement of comprehensive revenue and expense, statement of changes in net worth,and statement of cash flows for the year ended on that date, a statement of segments, and notes to the financial statements that include accounting policies, borrowings as at 30 June 2016, and other explanatory information;
  • a statement of unappropriated expenditure for the year ended 30 June 2016;
  • a statement of expenses or capital expenditure incurred in emergencies for the year ended 30 June 2016; and
  • a statement of trust money, administered by departments, for the year ended 30 June 2016.

In my opinion, the financial statements of the Government on pages 34 to 151:

  • present fairly, in all material respects the Government's:
    • financial position as at 30 June 2016;
    • financial performance and cash flows for the year ended on that date;
    • borrowings as at 30 June 2016;
    • unappropriated expenditure for the year ended 30 June 2016;
    • emergency expenses and capital expenditure for the year ended 30 June 2016; and
    • trust money administered by departments for the year ended 30 June 2016.
  • comply with generally accepted accounting practice in New Zealand, in accordance with Public Sector Public Benefit Entity Accounting Standards.

Basis for Opinion

The audit has been carried out in accordance with the Auditor-General's Auditing Standards, which incorporate the International Standards on Auditing (New Zealand) (ISAs (NZ)). My responsibilities under those standards are further described in the Auditor's responsibilities for the audit of the financial statements of the Government section of this report.

While carrying out this audit, my staff, and appointed auditors and their staff followed my independence requirements, which incorporate the independence requirements of Professional and Ethical Standard 1 (Revised) Code of Ethics for Assurance Practitioners issued by the New Zealand Auditing and Assurance Standards Board and the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants' Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (IESBA Code), and we have fulfilled our other ethical responsibilities in accordance with my independence requirements.

As an Officer of Parliament, I am constitutionally and operationally independent of the Government and, in exercising my functions and powers under the Public Audit Act 2001 as the auditor of public entities, I have no relationship with or interests in the Government.

I believe that the audit evidence I have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion.

Independent Report of the Auditor-General (continued)

Key Audit Matters

Key audit matters are those matters that, in my professional judgement, were of most significance in my audit of the financial statements of the Government of the current period. In applying my professional judgement to determine key audit matters, I considered those matters that could be complex, have a high degree of uncertainty, or are important to the public.

Because of the nature of the Government's activities, I recognise that key audit matters may be long-standing, and therefore, may not change significantly from one year to the next. These matters were addressed in my audit of the financial statements of the Government as a whole, and in forming my opinion thereon.

Recognition of tax revenue
Key audit matter What we did

The Government recognised tax revenue of $63.1 billion for the year ended 30 June 2016. Tax revenue is the main source of revenue for the Government.

As outlined in note 2, it is necessary to estimate some components of tax revenue at 30 June 2016 because of timing differences between the reporting date for the financial statements of the Government and when taxpayers file tax returns.

At 30 June 2016, the most significant estimates were those about companies' and other persons' income tax revenue totalling $14.4 billion (net of refunds).

Estimating income tax revenue is complex and relies on judgement. The recognition of income tax revenue is a key audit matter because it is a significant source of the Government's revenue, and is subject to significant uncertainties, complexities, and judgements.

We obtained an understanding of the systems, processes, and controls in place over the receipt of tax revenue, and assessed significant reconciliation processes.

We carried out audit procedures to confirm the value of tax revenue as at 30 June 2016. This involved testing the data used in the estimation models to ensure that it was relevant and was used appropriately, checking the evidence to support the reasonableness of underlying assumptions applied in the models, and testing the sensitivity of the underlying assumptions used in the models.

We also reviewed the historical accuracy of the estimation models to ensure that they had previously provided reasonably accurate estimates, and we checked receipts after year end to confirm the validity of some estimates.

I am satisfied that the estimates included in tax revenue at 30 June 2016 are reasonable, and that the disclosures about the key estimates and judgements are appropriate.

Valuing property, plant and equipment
Key audit matter What we did
The Government owns a number of significant assets that can be difficult to value because of the nature of the assets. I have identified the following specific asset types where such difficulties are considered key audit matters because of the significance of those assets, and the uncertainties inherent in making the valuations.  

State highway network

As outlined in note 18, the state highway network has been valued at $22.3 billion at 30 June 2016 by an independent external valuer. The valuation is based on information from a number of databases that identify the asset components that make up the network (roads, bridges, culverts, etc.), and their expected useful lives. These asset components exclude land which is separately recorded, as set out in note 18.

It is possible that some of the information in the databases could be incomplete or has been indexed using assumptions that cannot be easily verified. This includes additional brownfields costs, such as traffic management, that cannot be applied to historic road construction because of incomplete records about these costs. As a result, there are uncertainties about the valuation of the state highway network.

We obtained an understanding of how the state highway network is valued. This involved confirming the competence, capabilities, and objectivity of the valuer, testing the valuer’s valuation procedures, including the information they extracted from databases, and challenging the valuer’s critical assumptions and judgements.

We also carried out audit procedures to confirm that key controls were operating over the state highway network systems. This involved testing a sample of asset components to check whether appropriate approval had been obtained for expenditure on the components and whether there was adequate supporting documentation.

We also reviewed the valuer's estimates of known brownfields costs, and in particular brownfields costs associated with roading components constructed or acquired during the year.

I am satisfied that the value of the state highway network is reasonable and consistent with valuation practices, and that the disclosures appropriately outline the uncertainties about the valuation of the state highway network.

Electricity generation assets

As outlined in note 18, the electricity generation assets, which are at least 51% owned by the Government, are valued at $15.7 billion at 30 June 2016. The valuation of these assets is carried out by specialist valuers because of the complexity and significance of the assumptions about the future prices of electricity, the generation costs, and the generation volumes that these assets will create.

As a result, small changes to these assumptions, in particular the forecast prices of electricity and the discount rates used to determine the present value of these prices, could significantly change the value of these assets.

We obtained an understanding of how electricity generation assets are valued. This involved confirming the competence, capabilities, and objectivity of the valuers, testing the valuer’s procedures for carrying out the valuations, including the information they used to carry them out, and challenging the valuer’s critical assumptions and judgements. We also used our own valuation specialists to assess the valuers procedures.

We tested the sensitivity of the key underlying assumptions used by the valuers to ensure that they were reasonable, and we compared the forecast prices of electricity to the expected longer-term wholesale prices and market data where it was available.

We also confirmed the underlying information held about assets by verifying asset purchases and disposals in the current period. This included testing whether there was adequate supporting documentation for those purchases and disposals. It also involved confirming the opening assets balances, and evaluating the related financial statement disclosures.

I am satisfied that the valuation of electricity generation assets is reasonable and the disclosures appropriately outline the sensitivity and the complexity of the valuation of electricity generation assets.

Rail network

As outlined in note 18, the rail network has been valued at $959 million at 30 June 2016. In arriving at this value the freight and the metro transport parts of the network have been valued on different bases, reflecting the commercial nature of the freight part of the network and public benefit nature of the metro transport part of the network.

The extent to which the freight part of the network is commercial is open to debate, given the expected government funding required in future years. If it was not considered commercial, the basis for valuing the freight part of the network would change to reflect a public benefit nature. As outlined in note 18, if the freight part of the network had been valued based on a public benefit value rather than a commercial value, the rail network would increase in value by $4.2 billion.

We considered the evidence around the commercial nature versus the public benefit nature of the freight part of the rail network. The evidence included reviewing:

  • the State owned Enterprises Act 1986;
  • strategy documents;
  • forecast results;
  • correspondence setting out the Minister's expectations; and
  • minutes from Board meetings.

As in past years, the evidence showed mixed results for the commercial nature versus the public benefit nature of the freight part of the rail network.

It is a finely balanced judgement whether to value the freight part of the network on a commercial basis.

On balance, I am satisfied that the judgement to value the freight part of the network on a commercial basis is once again marginal but reasonable, and that the disclosures are appropriate.

Valuing long-term liabilities
Key audit matter What we did
The valuation of the Government's long-term liabilities is complex and requires actuaries to estimate the value, based on assumptions about the future. I have identified the following specific liabilities where such complexities are considered key audit matters because of the significance of the value of those liabilities, and the uncertainties inherent in making those valuations.  

ACC's outstanding claims liability

As outlined in note 22, ACC's outstanding claims liability has been valued at $36.6 billion at 30 June 2016 by an independent actuary.

The assumptions used to calculate the value of the outstanding claims liability include estimating the length of rehabilitation from injuries, estimating amounts of cash payments and when they will occur, and estimating inflation and discount rates.

The sensitivities are demonstrated in note 2, which indicates that changes in the assumptions can have a large effect on the amount of the liability, which also effects the amount of the actuarial gain or loss on the liability.

We obtained an understanding of how ACC's outstanding claims liability is valued, which included considering the appropriateness of the assumptions adopted by ACC for each significant claim type.

We tested the underlying process for recording claims, used our own actuarial specialists to assess the approach taken to valuing the liability, and assessed the significant assumptions used in the valuation by evaluating them against past claims.

We also tested the reconciliations of the underlying claims data to ACC's systems, examined the sensitivity analysis for movements in key assumptions, and evaluated the related financial statement disclosures.

I am satisfied that ACC's outstanding claims liability is reasonable, and that the disclosures appropriately outline the sensitivities of the valuation to changes in assumptions.

Valuing Government employees superannuation liability

As outlined in note 23, the Government's liability for public servants superannuation entitlements for past and current members under the Government Superannuation Fund has been valued at $12.4 billion at 30 June 2016 by an independent actuary.

The assumptions used to calculate the value of the liability include estimating the return on assets owned by the Fund, estimating expected rates of salary increases for public servants who are members of the Fund, and estimating inflation and discount rates.

As demonstrated in note 2, changes in the assumptions can have a large effect on the amount of the liability.

We obtained an understanding of how the Government's liability for public servants superannuation entitlements is valued. This involved, confirming the competence, capabilities, and objectivity of the actuary, as well as testing the actuary’s valuation procedures. We used our own valuation specialists to assess the actuary’s procedures, and we challenged the actuary’s critical assumptions and judgements.

We also tested key controls over the completeness and accuracy of membership data, which was used in the actuary's valuation and we evaluated the appropriateness of key assumptions on the return on assets and expected rates of salary increases, against external benchmarks.

I am satisfied that the Government's liability for public servants superannuation entitlements is reasonable, and that the disclosures appropriately outline the sensitivities of the valuation to changes in assumptions.

Valuing financial assets and liabilities at their fair value
Key audit matter What we did

As outlined in note 29, the Government has financial assets of $125.8 billion, of which $71.8 billion are valued at their fair value, and financial liabilities of $127.2 billion, of which $12.3 billion are valued at their fair value. The financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value include derivatives (which have a principal value of $221.5 billion), marketable securities, and share investments.

Where quoted market prices are not available to determine the value of financial assets and liabilities, fair value must be estimated. This is done by applying a valuation approach that is most appropriate for the asset or liability, such as using valuation models. Inputs into the models will use market data when available, otherwise inputs are derived from non-market data, which requires judgement.

We consider that valuing financial assets and financial liabilities at their fair value is a key audit matter, given their significance, including the principal value of derivatives, and the estimations required.

We obtained an understanding of the valuation processes used by entities to determine the fair value of financial assets and liabilities. 

Where a fund manager carries out the valuation, we obtained an understanding of the controls and valuation approaches applied.

We also carried out a range of audit procedures which reflected the nature of the financial assets and liabilities being valued and the uncertainties associated in determining their fair value. These audit procedures included a mixture of:

  • testing the internal controls over data relating to financial assets and liabilities that has been entered into systems;
  • confirming the fair value of financial assets and liabilities to independently sourced valuations, and investigating any significant variances;
  • confirming the value of financial assets and liabilities to independent pricing sources; and
  • evaluating the appropriateness of the inputs used for valuing financial assets and liabilities where the fair value was dependent on significant non-market inputs.

I am satisfied that the fair values for financial assets and liabilities are reasonable and that the disclosures are appropriate.

Accounting for the effects of the Canterbury earthquakes
Key audit matter What we did

The outstanding earthquake insurance liabilities for the Canterbury earthquakes, as outlined in note 31, are $2.1 billion at 30 June 2016.

The calculation of these liabilities is complex and is carried out by independent actuaries. The calculations have to take into account estimates of the extent of the damage, which is often not clearly known, uncertainties arising from changing land policies and engineering requirements in response to issues such as liquefaction and flooding, and associated legal claims.

I have included the outstanding Canterbury earthquakes liabilities as a key audit matter because of the public interest in these liabilities.

We obtained an understanding of how the outstanding earthquake insurance liabilities for the Canterbury earthquakes were valued. This involved confirming the competence, capabilities, and objectivity of the actuaries, testing the actuaries’ valuation procedures, including the information they used, and challenging the actuaries critical assumptions and judgements.

We evaluated whether the latest information about the effects of the earthquakes, including the damage, claims paid out, and repairs undertaken, had been used by the actuaries. We also used our own actuarial specialists to assess the actuaries’ procedures.

We tested a sample of claims and payments of claims during the year to ensure that appropriate controls were in place, they had been appropriately approved, they had supporting evidence, and they had been correctly incorporated into the information used by the actuaries.

I am satisfied that the earthquake insurance liabilities are reasonable and that the disclosures appropriately outline the uncertainties over the valuation of the earthquake insurance liabilities.

Responsibilities of the Treasury and the Minister of Finance for the financial statements of the Government

The Treasury is responsible for preparing financial statements of the Government that:

  • comply with generally accepted accounting practice in New Zealand in accordance with Public Sector Public Benefit Entity Accounting Standards;
  • present fairly, in all material respects the Government's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows; and
  • presents fairly, in all material respects the Government's:
    • borrowings;
    • unappropriated expenditure;
    • expenses or capital expenditure incurred in emergencies; and
    • trust money administered by departments.

The Minister of Finance is responsible for forming an opinion that the financial statements of the Government present fairly in all material respects the financial position and financial performance of the Government.

The responsibilities of the Treasury and the Minister of Finance arise from the Public Finance Act 1989.

The Treasury is also responsible for such internal control as it determines is necessary to enable the preparation of the financial statements of the Government that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error. The Treasury is also responsible for the publication of the financial statements of the Government, whether in printed or electronic form.

In preparing the financial statements of the Government, the Treasury is responsible for assessing the Government's ability to continue as a going concern, disclosing, as applicable, matters related to going concern and using the going concern basis of accounting.

Auditor's responsibilities for the audit of the financial statements of the Government

I am responsible for expressing an independent opinion on the financial statements of the Government and reporting that opinion to you based on my audit. My responsibility arises from section 15 of the Public Audit Act 2001.

My objectives are to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements of the Government as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, and to issue an audit report that includes my opinion. Reasonable assurance is a high level of assurance, but is not a guarantee that an audit conducted in accordance with ISAs (NZ) will always detect a material misstatement when it exists. Misstatements can arise from fraud or error and are considered material if, individually or in the aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the decisions users take on the basis of the financial statements of the Government. If material misstatements had been found that were not corrected, I would have referred to them in my opinion.

As part of an audit in accordance with ISAs (NZ), I exercised professional judgement and maintained professional scepticism throughout the audit. Also:

  • I identified and assessed the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements of the Government, whether due to fraud or error, designed and performed audit procedures responsive to those risks, and obtained audit evidence that is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for my opinion. The risk of not detecting a material misstatement resulting from fraud is higher than for one resulting from error, as fraud may involve collusion, forgery, intentional omissions, misrepresentations, or the override of internal control.
  • I obtained an understanding of internal control relevant to the audit in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the internal control used by the Treasury to prepare the financial statements of the Government.
  • I evaluated the appropriateness of accounting policies used, and the reasonableness of accounting estimates and related disclosures made by the Treasury.
  • I concluded on the appropriateness of the use of the going concern basis of accounting that has been used by the Treasury to prepare the financial statements of the Government, up to the date of my auditor's report based on the audit evidence I have obtained.
  • I evaluated the overall presentation, structure, and content of the financial statements of the Government, including the disclosures, and whether the financial statements of the Government represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieves fair presentation.

For the budget information reported in the financial statements of the Government, my procedures were limited to checking that the amounts agree to the Government's most recent forecast.

As part of my audit, I obtained information from my staff, and appointed auditors of the organisations that are consolidated into the financial statements of the Government, including information about:

  • eliminations of transactions between the organisations that are consolidated into the financial statements of the Government;
  • application by those organisations of appropriate accounting policies and Treasury instructions to prepare the financial statements of the Government; and
  • relevant risks of material misstatement of the financial statements of those organisations that may affect the financial statements of the Government.

I have communicated with the Treasury, among other matters, the planned scope and timing of the audit and significant audit findings, including any significant deficiencies in internal control that I identified during my audit.

From the matters communicated with the Treasury, I determined those matters that were of most significance in the audit of the financial statements of the Government of the current period and are therefore the key audit matters described in this report.

I did not evaluate the security and controls over the publication, whether in printed or electronic form, of the financial statements of the Government.

Other information

In addition to preparing the financial statements of the Government, the Treasury is also responsible for preparing the other information on pages 3 to 24 and 153 to 162.

My opinion on the financial statements of the Government does not cover the other information. As a result, I do not express any form of audit opinion or assurance conclusion on that information.

In connection with my audit of the financial statements of the Government, my responsibility is to read the other information, and, in doing so, consider whether this information is materially inconsistent with the financial statements of the Government, or my knowledge obtained in the audit, or otherwise appears to be materially misstated. If, based on the work I have performed, I conclude that there is a material misstatement of this other information, I am required to report that fact. I have nothing to report in this regard.

Lyn Provost
Controller and Auditor-General
Wellington, New Zealand

30 September 2016

Audited Financial Statements of the Government of New Zealand

Statement of Financial Performance for the year ended 30 June 2016

Statement of Financial Performance
for the year ended 30 June 2016
2016 Forecast Note Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Revenue  
68,098 68,931 Taxation revenue 3 69,668 66,055
4,606 4,637 Other sovereign revenue 3 4,643 4,953
72,704 73,568 Total sovereign revenue 74,311 71,008
17,044 16,618 Sales of goods and services 4 16,364 16,365
4,064 3,721 Interest revenue and dividends 5 3,603 3,524
3,580 3,607 Other revenue 6 3,881 3,615
24,688 23,946 Total revenue earned through operations 23,848 23,504
97,392 97,514 Total revenue (excluding gains) 98,159 94,512
Expenses  
24,482 24,421 Transfer payments and subsidies 7 24,312 23,723
21,594 21,783 Personnel expenses 8 21,763 21,124
4,253 4,234 Depreciation 3,912 3,873
38,131 37,696 Other operating expenses 9 36,832 36,378
4,687 4,472 Interest expenses 10 4,336 4,563
4,348 4,335 Insurance expenses 11 4,725 4,110
305 2 Forecast new operating spending
(1,025) (600) Top-down expense adjustment
96,775 96,343 Total expenses (excluding losses) 95,880 93,771
441 503 Less minority interests share of operating balance before gains and losses 448 327
176 668 Operating balance before gains and losses (excluding minority interests) 1,831 414
2,560 1,041 Net gains/(losses) on financial instruments 12 1,117 6,196
(45) (4,496) Net gains/(losses) on non-financial instruments 13 (8,636) (1,649)
2,515 (3,455) Total gains/(losses) (7,519) 4,547
32 62 Less minority interests share of total gains/(losses) (12) 218
2,483 (3,517) Gains/(losses) (excluding minority interests) (7,507) 4,329
331 284 Net surplus from associates and joint ventures 307 1,028
2,990 (2,565) Operating balance (excluding minority interests) (5,369) 5,771
Operating balance allocated between:  
2,990 (2,565) Operating balance (excluding minority interests) (5,369) 5,771
473 565 Minority interests share of operating balance 25 436 545
3,463 (2,000) Operating balance (including minority interests) (4,933) 6,316

The accompanying notes (including accounting policies) are an integral part of these statements.

Analysis of Expenses by Functional Classification for the year ended 30 June 2016

Total Crown expenses
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Total Crown expenses  
29,231 29,036 Social security and welfare 28,901 28,231
15,103 15,156 Health 15,160 14,696
13,894 13,968 Education 13,809 13,537
4,385 4,236 Core government services 3,950 3,898
3,841 3,926 Law and order 3,894 3,730
9,437 9,435 Transport and communications 9,400 9,279
7,657 7,481 Economic and industrial services 7,428 7,734
2,036 2,033 Defence 2,013 1,917
2,304 2,208 Heritage, culture and recreation 2,210 2,198
1,896 1,908 Primary services 1,852 1,740
569 687 Environmental protection 580 616
1,547 1,593 Housing and community development 1,600 1,114
371 290 GSF pension expenses 286 373
537 512 Other 461 145
4,687 4,472 Finance costs 4,336 4,563
305 2 Forecast new operating spending
(1,025) (600) Top-down expense adjustment
96,775 96,343 Total Crown expenses (excluding losses) 95,880 93,771

Below is an analysis of core Crown expenses by functional classification. Core Crown expenses include expenses incurred by Ministers, Departments, Offices of Parliament, the NZS Fund and the Reserve Bank, but not Crown entities and State-owned Enterprises. Details of unappropriated expenditure can be found on pages 141 to 146.

Core Crown expenses
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Core Crown expenses  
24,275 24,296 Social security and welfare 24,081 23,523
15,581 15,635 Health 15,626 15,058
13,134 13,215 Education 13,158 12,879
4,811 4,446 Core government services 4,102 4,134
3,582 3,691 Law and order 3,648 3,515
2,214 2,246 Transport and communications 2,178 2,291
2,262 2,134 Economic and industrial services 2,107 2,228
2,087 2,047 Defence 2,026 1,961
808 794 Heritage, culture and recreation 787 778
742 777 Primary services 749 667
605 685 Environmental protection 587 723
582 583 Housing and community development 558 320
355 272 GSF pension expenses 271 358
537 512 Other 461 145
3,676 3,647 Finance costs 3,590 3,783
305 2 Forecast new operating spending
(1,025) (600) Top-down expense adjustment
74,531 74,382 Total core Crown expenses (excluding losses) 73,929 72,363

The accompanying notes (including accounting policies) are an integral part of these statements.

Statement of Comprehensive Revenue and Expense
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Statement of Comprehensive Revenue and Expense
for the year ended 30 June 2016
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
3,463 (2,000) Operating balance (including minority interests) (4,933) 6,316
Other comprehensive revenue and expense  
(259) Revaluation of physical assets 8,585 5,172
Share of associates revaluation of physical assets 280 347
20 (231) Other revaluations reflected directly in reserves (277) (5)
6 (4) Other movements 34 (13)
26 (494) Total other comprehensive revenue and expense 8,622 5,501
3,489 (2,494) Total comprehensive revenue and expense 3,689 11,817
Attributable to:  
480 413  - minority interests 777 849
3,009 (2,907)  - the Crown 2,912 10,968
3,489 (2,494) Total comprehensive revenue and expense 3,689 11,817

The accompanying notes (including accounting policies) are an integral part of these statements.

Statement of Changes in Net Worth
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Statement of Changes in Net Worth
for the year ended 30 June 2016
2016 Forecast Note Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
Taxpayer
funds
$m
Reserves
$m
Minority
interests
$m
Total
net
worth
$m
80,779 80,697 Net worth at 30 June 2014 13,218 62,268 5,211 80,697
(251) 6,316 Operating balance 5,771 545 6,316
(51) 5,520 Net revaluations 18 5,274 246 5,520
(113) Transfers to/(from) reserves 392 (392)
7 (56) (Gains)/losses transferred to the statement of financial performance (56) (56)
(51) 37 Other movements (27) 6 58 37
(459) 11,817 Total comprehensive revenue and expense 6,136 4,832 849 11,817
23 Increase in minority interest from Government share offers  
(359) (278) Transactions with minority interests 25 (278) (278)
79,984 92,236 Net worth at 30 June 2015 19,354 67,100 5,782 92,236
3,463 (2,000) Operating balance (5,369) 436 (4,933)
(259) Net revaluations 18 8,413 452 8,865
30 (211) Transfers to/(from) reserves (106) 55 (85) (136)
6 22 (Gains)/losses transferred to the statement of financial performance (56) (56)
(10) (46) Other movements 53 (78) (26) (51)
3,489 (2,494) Total comprehensive revenue and expense (5,422) 8,334 777 3,689
(438) (440) Transactions with minority interests 25 (404) (404)
83,035 89,302 Net worth at 30 June 2016 13,932 75,434 6,155 95,521

The accompanying notes (including accounting policies) are an integral part of these statements.

Statement of Cash Flows
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Statement of Cash Flows
for the year ended 30 June 2016
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Cash Flows From Operations  
Cash was provided from  
67,001 68,401 Taxation receipts 69,027 64,945
4,357 4,566 Other sovereign receipts 4,685 4,731
17,352 17,130 Sales of goods and services 17,074 17,232
3,608 3,401 Interest and dividend receipts 3,430 3,364
4,621 4,044 Other operating receipts 4,131 3,823
96,939 97,542 Total cash provided from operations 98,347 94,095
Cash was disbursed to  
24,498 24,449 Transfer payments and subsidies 24,338 23,896
63,069 62,110 Personnel and operating payments 61,160 60,009
4,704 4,438 Interest payments 4,333 4,598
305 2 Forecast new operating spending
(1,025) (600) Top-down expense adjustment
91,551 90,399 Total cash disbursed to operations 89,831 88,503
5,388 7,143 Net cash flows from operations 8,516 5,592
Cash Flows From Investing Activities  
Cash was provided from  
790 510 Sale of physical assets 683 775
89,988 102,816 Sale of shares and other securities 101,343 109,854
20 Sale of intangible assets 3
1,552 1,919 Repayment of advances 1,278 1,361
25 162 Sale of investments in associates 167 241
92,355 105,427 Total cash provided from investing activities 103,471 112,234
Cash was disbursed to  
8,918 7,394 Purchase of physical assets 6,881 6,952
90,796 102,861 Purchase of shares and other securities 99,933 114,570
744 723 Purchase of intangible assets 687 635
3,177 2,881 Advances made 2,980 3,242
100 46 Acquisition of investments in associates 54 88
316 31 Forecast for new capital spending
(280) (100) Top-down capital adjustment
103,771 113,836 Total cash disbursed to investing activities 110,535 125,487
(11,416) (8,409) Net cash flows from investing activities (7,064) (13,253)
(6,028) (1,266) Net cash flows from operating and investing activities 1,452 (7,661)

The accompanying notes (including accounting policies) are an integral part of these statements.

Statement of Cash Flows (continued)
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Statement of Cash Flows (continued)
for the year ended 30 June 2016
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
(6,028) (1,266) Net cash flows from operating and investing activities 1,452 (7,661)
Cash Flows From Financing Activities  
Cash was provided from  
164 564 Issue of circulating currency 378 372
Government share offer programme 579
8,462 8,342 Issue of Government bonds 8,029 8,058
76 Issue of foreign currency borrowings 2,480 1,227
8,010 7,834 Issue of other New Zealand dollar borrowings 8,708 14,506
16,636 16,816 Total cash provided from financing activities 19,595 24,742
Cash was disbursed to  
1,777 1,778 Repayment of Government bonds 1,779 6,510
1,494 495 Repayment of foreign currency borrowings 270 3,548
7,045 10,062 Repayment of other New Zealand dollar borrowings 14,669 7,429
464 492 Dividends paid to minority interests 509 478
10,780 12,827 Total cash disbursed to financing activities 17,227 17,965
5,856 3,989 Net cash flows from financing activities 2,368 6,777
(172) 2,723 Net movement in cash 3,820 (884)
13,209 11,982 Opening cash balance 11,982 11,888
-   331 Foreign-exchange gains/(losses) on opening cash (185) 978
13,037 15,036 Closing cash balance 15,617 11,982

The accompanying notes (including accounting policies) are an integral part of these statements.

Statement of Cash Flows (continued)
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Statement of Cash Flows (continued)
for the year ended 30 June 2016
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Reconciliation Between the Net Cash Flows from Operations and the Operating Balance  
5,388 7,143 Net Cash Flows from Operations 8,516 5,592
Items included in the operating balance but not in net cash flows from operations  
Gains/(losses)  
2,560 1,041 Net gains/(losses) on financial instruments 1,117 6,196
(45) (4,496) Net gains/(losses) on non-financial instruments (8,636) (1,649)
32 62 Less minority interests share of net/gains/(losses) (12) 218
2,483 (3,517) Total gains/(losses) (7,507) 4,329
Other Non-cash Items in Operating Balance  
(4,904) (4,875) Depreciation and amortisation (4,875) (4,842)
(773) (806) Cost of concessionary lending (747) (696)
(125) (82) Impairment of financial assets (excl receivables) (169) (305)
370 445 Change in accumulating pension expenses 420 373
705 170 Change in accumulating insurance expenses (597) 746
(109) (218) Other non-cash items (85) 699
(4,836) (5,366) Total other non-cash items in operating balance (6,053) (4,025)
Movements in Working Capital  
(278) (229) Increase/(decrease) in receivables (532) 141
445 286 Increase/(decrease) in accrued interest 169 196
22 (16) Increase/(decrease) in inventories 115 (105)
(10) (3) Increase/(decrease) in prepayments 70 (12)
(9) (18) Decrease/(increase) in deferred revenue (66) (149)
(215) (845) Decrease/(increase) in payables/provisions (81) (196)
(45) (825) Total movements in working capital (325) (125)
2,990 (2,565) Operating balance (excluding minority interests) (5,369) 5,771

The accompanying notes (including accounting policies) are an integral part of these statements.

Statement of Financial Position
as at 30 June 2016

Statement of Financial Position
as at 30 June 2016
2016 Forecast Note Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Assets  
13,037 15,036 Cash and cash equivalents 15,617 11,982
17,468 16,946 Receivables 14 16,789 17,602
46,799 49,729 Marketable securities, deposits and derivatives in gain 15 53,398 54,298
25,921 25,443 Share investments 16 24,217 25,408
28,669 27,504 Advances 17 28,234 26,497
1,089 979 Inventory 1,110 995
2,165 2,346 Other assets 2,914 2,389
123,577 127,001 Property, plant & equipment 18 134,499 124,558
11,126 12,172 Equity accounted investments 19 12,705 12,429
3,264 3,306 Intangible assets and goodwill 3,196 3,056
316 31 Forecast for new capital spending
(655) (100) Top-down capital adjustment
272,776 280,393 Total assets 292,679 279,214
Liabilities  
5,640 5,900 Issued currency 5,715 5,336
12,232 12,088 Payables 20 12,029 12,464
2,012 2,130 Deferred revenue 2,178 2,112
113,377 113,009 Borrowings 21 113,956 112,580
37,814 39,325 Insurance liabilities 22 42,126 36,431
12,190 11,287 Retirement plan liabilities 23 12,442 10,834
6,476 7,352 Provisions 24 8,712 7,221
189,741 191,091 Total liabilities 197,158 186,978
83,035 89,302 Total assets less total liabilities 95,521 92,236
Net Worth  
15,978 16,807 Taxpayer funds 13,932 19,354
61,873 66,831 Property, plant and equipment revaluation reserve 18 75,626 67,107
(39) (91) Other reserves (192) (7)
77,812 83,547 Total net worth attributable to the Crown 89,366 86,454
5,223 5,755 Net worth attributable to minority interests 25 6,155 5,782
83,035 89,302 Total net worth 95,521 92,236

The accompanying notes (including accounting policies) are an integral part of these statements.

Statement of Segments

Statement of Segments
  Current Year Actual vs Estimated Actuals (Budget 2016)
Core Crown Crown entities State-owned enterprises Inter-segment eliminations Total Crown
Actual
2016
$m
Forecast
Budget
2016
$m
Actual
2016
$m
Forecast
Budget
2016
$m
Actual
2016
$m
Forecast
Budget
2016
$m
Actual
2016
$m
Forecast
Budget
2016
$m
Actual
2016
$m
Forecast
Budget
2016
$m
Revenue          
Taxation revenue 70,445 69,682 (777) (751) 69,668 68,931
Other sovereign revenue 1,116 1,178 4,712 4,632 (1,185) (1,173) 4,643 4,637
Revenue from core Crown funding 26,197 26,326 113 118 (26,310) (26,444)
Sales of goods and services 1,453 1,470 1,938 1,863 13,538 13,807 (565) (522) 16,364 16,618
Interest revenue and dividends 2,389 2,404 1,484 1,470 997 1,061 (1,267) (1,214) 3,603 3,721
Other revenue 718 595 2,807 2,376 729 849 (373) (213) 3,881 3,607
Total Revenue (excluding gains) 76,121 75,329 37,138 36,667 15,377 15,835 (30,477) (30,317) 98,159 97,514
Expenses          
Transfer payments and subsidies 24,312 24,421 24,312 24,421
Personnel expenses 6,666 6,683 12,205 12,185 2,921 2,937 (29) (22) 21,763 21,783
Other operating expenses 39,361 40,229 25,004 24,641 10,133 10,383 (29,029) (28,988) 45,469 46,265
Interest expenses 3,590 3,647 215 176 1,154 1,246 (623) (597) 4,336 4,472
Forecast new operating spending and top down adjustment (598) (598)
Total Expenses (excluding losses) 73,929 74,382 37,424 37,002 14,208 14,566 (29,681) (29,607) 95,880 96,343
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses) 14 13 (474) (549) 12 33 (448) (503)
Operating Balance before gains and losses  (excluding minority interests) 2,192 947 (272) (322) 695 720 (784) (677) 1,831 668
Gains/(losses) and other items (3,104) (1,384) (3,208) (1,789) 25 153 (913) (213) (7,200) (3,233)
Operating Balance (912) (437) (3,480) (2,111) 720 873 (1,697) (890) (5,369) (2,565)
Assets
Financial assets 88,014 87,146 47,485 45,268 24,237 23,706 (21,481) (21,462) 138,255 134,658
Property, plant and equipment 35,697 32,995 66,770 62,967 32,033 31,039 (1) 134,499 127,001
Investments in associates, CEs and SOEs 38,376 38,222 10,819 10,077 228 548 (36,718) (36,675) 12,705 12,172
Other assets 3,083 3,063 1,795 1,268 2,421 2,336 (79) (36) 7,220 6,631
Forecast adjustments (69) (69)
Total Assets 165,170 161,357 126,869 119,580 58,919 57,629 (58,279) (58,173) 292,679 280,393
Liabilities          
Borrowings 95,036 95,671 5,961 5,924 29,813 29,579 (16,854) (18,165) 113,956 113,009
Other liabilities 33,515 31,271 50,615 46,977 7,848 7,480 (8,776) (7,646) 83,202 78,082
Total Liabilities 128,551 126,942 56,576 52,901 37,661 37,059 (25,630) (25,811) 197,158 191,091
Net Worth 36,619 34,415 70,293 66,679 21,258 20,570 (32,649) (32,362) 95,521 89,302
Cost of Acquisition of Physical Assets (Cash) 1,971 2,130 3,240 3,218 1,681 2,077 (11) (31) 6,881 7,394

Statement of Segments (continued)

Statement of Segments (continued)
  Current Year Actual vs Prior Year Actual
Core Crown Crown entities State-owned
enterprises
Inter-segment
eliminations
Total Crown
Actual
2016
$m
Actual
2015
$m
Actual
2016
$m
Actual
2015
$m
Actual
2016
$m
Actual
2015
$m
Actual
2016
$m
Actual
2015
$m
Actual
2016
$m
Actual
2015
$m
Revenue          
Taxation revenue 70,445 66,636 (777) (581) 69,668 66,055
Other sovereign revenue 1,116 993 4,712 5,062 (1,185) (1,102) 4,643 4,953
Revenue from core Crown funding 26,197 25,535 113 139 (26,310) (25,674)
Sales of goods and services 1,453 1,393 1,938 1,854 13,538 13,670 (565) (552) 16,364 16,365
Interest revenue and dividends 2,389 2,452 1,484 1,429 997 1,043 (1,267) (1,400) 3,603 3,524
Other revenue 718 739 2,807 2,414 729 822 (373) (360) 3,881 3,615
Total Revenue (excluding gains) 76,121 72,213 37,138 36,294 15,377 15,674 (30,477) (29,669) 98,159 94,512
Expenses          
Transfer payments and subsidies 24,312 23,723 24,312 23,723
Personnel expenses 6,666 6,552 12,205 11,660 2,921 2,935 (29) (23) 21,763 21,124
Other operating expenses 39,361 38,305 25,004 23,750 10,133 10,493 (29,029) (28,187) 45,469 44,361
Interest expenses 3,590 3,783 215 221 1,154 1,280 (623) (721) 4,336 4,563
Total Expenses (excluding losses) 73,929 72,363 37,424 35,631 14,208 14,708 (29,681) (28,931) 95,880 93,771
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses) 14 21 (474) (384) 12 36 (448) (327)
Operating Balance before gains and losses (excluding minority interests) 2,192 (150) (272) 684 695 582 (784) (702) 1,831 414
Gains/(losses) and other items (3,104) 4,029 (3,208) 2,102 25 107 (913) (881) (7,200) 5,357
Operating Balance (912) 3,879 (3,480) 2,786 720 689 (1,697) (1,583) (5,369) 5,771
Assets          
Financial assets 88,014 88,754 47,485 45,257 24,237 22,588 (21,481) (20,812) 138,255 135,787
Property, plant and equipment 35,697 32,289 66,770 61,416 32,033 30,852 (1) 1 134,499 124,558
Investments in associates, CEs and SOEs 38,376 35,394 10,819 9,790 228 565 (36,718) (33,320) 12,705 12,429
Other assets 3,083 2,787 1,795 1,792 2,421 2,404 (79) (543) 7,220 6,440
Total Assets 165,170 159,224 126,869 118,255 58,919 56,409 (58,279) (54,674) 292,679 279,214
Liabilities          
Borrowings 95,036 95,549 5,961 5,640 29,813 28,437 (16,854) (17,046) 113,956 112,580
Other liabilities 33,515 30,273 50,615 45,277 7,848 7,573 (8,776) (8,725) 83,202 74,398
Total Liabilities 128,551 125,822 56,576 50,917 37,661 36,010 (25,630) (25,771) 197,158 186,978
Net Worth 36,619 33,402 70,293 67,338 21,258 20,400 (32,649) (28,903) 95,521 92,236
Cost of Acquisition of Physical Assets (Cash) 1,971 1,999 3,240 2,882 1,681 2,085 (11) (14) 6,881 6,952

Notes to the Financial Statements

Note 1: Basis of Reporting

Statement of compliance

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Public Finance Act 1989 and with New Zealand Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (NZ GAAP) as defined in the Financial Reporting Act 2013.

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Public Sector PBE Accounting Standards (PBE Standards) - Tier 1. These standards are based on International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS).

For the purposes of these financial statements, the Government reporting entity has been designated as a public benefit entity (PBE). Public benefit entities (PBEs) are reporting entities whose primary objective is to provide goods or services for community or social benefit and where any equity has been provided with a view to supporting that primary objective rather than for a financial return to equity holders.

The use of public resources by the Government is primarily governed by the Public Finance Act 1989, the State Sector Act 1988, the Crown Entities Act 2004 and the State-owned Enterprises Act 1986.

These financial statements were authorised for issue by the Minister of Finance on 30 September 2016.

Reporting period

The reporting period for these financial statements is the year ended 30 June 2016.

Where necessary, the financial information for State-owned Enterprises and Crown entities that have a balance date other than 30 June has been adjusted for any transactions or events that have occurred since their most recent balance date and that are significant for the Financial Statements of the Government. Such entities are primarily in the education sector.

Basis of preparation

These financial statements have been prepared on the basis of historic cost modified by the revaluation of certain assets and liabilities, and prepared on an accrual basis, unless otherwise specified (for example, the Statement of Cash Flows).

The financial statements are presented in New Zealand dollars rounded to the nearest million, unless separately identified.

Accounting Standards issued and not yet effective and not early adopted

In 2015, the External Reporting Board issued Disclosure Initiative (Amendments to PBE IPSAS 1), 2015 Omnibus Amendments to PBE Standards, and Amendments to PBE Standards and Authoritative Notice as a Consequence of XRB A1 and Other Amendments. These amendments apply to PBEs with reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016. The Government will apply these amendments in preparing its 30 June 2017 financial statements but expects there will be no material effect in applying them.

Government Reporting Entity as at 30 June 2016

Reporting entity

The Government reporting entity as defined in section 2(1) of the Public Finance Act 1989 means:

  • the Sovereign in right of New Zealand, and
  • the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Government of New Zealand.

The description “Consolidated Financial Statements of the Government reporting entity” and the description “Financial Statements of the Government” have the same meaning and can be used interchangeably.

Basis of combination

These financial statements combine the following entities using the acquisition method of combination:

Core Crown entities

  • Ministers of the Crown
  • Government departments
  • Offices of Parliament
  • the Reserve Bank of New Zealand
  • New Zealand Superannuation Fund

Other entities

  • State-owned Enterprises
  • Crown entities (excluding tertiary education institutions)
  • Air New Zealand Limited
  • Regenerate Christchurch
  • Education Council of Aotearoa New Zealand
  • Organisations listed in Schedule 4 and 4A (Non-listed companies in which the Crown is majority or sole shareholder) of the Public Finance Act 1989
  • Organisations listed in Schedule 5 (Mixed ownership model companies) of the Public Finance Act 1989
  • Legal entities listed in Schedule 6 (Legal entities created by Treaty of Waitangi settlement Acts) of the Public Finance Act 1989

The Crown has a full residual interest in all the above entities with the exception of Air New Zealand Limited, Tāmaki Redevelopment Company Limited (listed in Schedule 4A of the Public Finance Act 1989), Regenerate Christchurch and the entities listed in Schedule 5 of the Public Finance Act 1989 (Mixed Ownership Model Companies).

Corresponding assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, are added together line by line. Transactions and balances between these sub-entities are eliminated on combination. Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of controlled entities to bring the accounting policies into line with those used by the Government reporting entity.

Tertiary education institutions are equity-accounted for the reasons explained in note 19 to the financial statements for the period ended 30 June 2016. This treatment recognises these entities' net assets, including asset revaluation movements, surpluses and deficits.

Note 1: Basis of Reporting (continued)

These financial statements are for the Government Reporting entity as specified in Part 3 of the Public Finance Act 1989. This comprises Ministers of the Crown and the following entities (classified in the three institutional components used for segmental reporting):

Core Crown

Departments

Crown Law Office

Department of Conservation

Department of Corrections

Department of Internal Affairs

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

Education Review Office

Government Communications Security Bureau

Inland Revenue Department

Land Information New Zealand

Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Ministry for Pacific Peoples

Ministry for Primary Industries

Ministry for the Environment

Ministry for Women

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

Ministry of Defence

Ministry of Education

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Ministry of Health

Ministry of Justice

Ministry of Māori Development

Ministry of Social Development

Ministry of Transport

New Zealand Customs Service

New Zealand Defence Force

New Zealand Police

New Zealand Security Intelligence Service

Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives

Parliamentary Counsel Office

Parliamentary Service

Serious Fraud Office

State Services Commission

Statistics New Zealand

The Treasury

Offices of Parliament

Controller and Auditor-General

Office of the Ombudsmen

Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment

Others

New Zealand Superannuation Fund

Reserve Bank of New Zealand

State-owned Enterprises

Airways Corporation of New Zealand Limited

Animal Control Products Limited

AsureQuality Limited

Electricity Corporation of New Zealand Limited

Kiwirail Holdings Limited

Kordia Group Limited

Landcorp Farming Limited

Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited

New Zealand Post Limited

New Zealand Railways Corporation

Quotable Value Limited

Solid Energy New Zealand Limited

Transpower New Zealand Limited

Mixed ownership model companies (Public Finance Act schedule 5 companies) 

Genesis Energy Limited

Meridian Energy Limited

Mighty River Power Limited

Other

Air New Zealand Limited

Crown entities

Accident Compensation Corporation

Accreditation Council

Arts Council of New Zealand Toi Aotearoa

Broadcasting Commission

Broadcasting Standards Authority

Callaghan Innovation

Careers New Zealand

Children's Commissioner

Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand

Commerce Commission

Crown Irrigation Investments Limited

Crown Research Institutes (7)

District Health Boards (20)

Drug Free Sport New Zealand

Earthquake Commission

Education New Zealand

Electoral Commission

Electricity Authority

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority

Environmental Protection Authority

External Reporting Board

Families Commission

Financial Markets Authority

Government Superannuation Fund Authority

Guardians of New Zealand Superannuation

Health and Disability Commissioner

Health Promotion Agency

Health Quality and Safety Commission

Health Research Council of New Zealand

Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga

Housing New Zealand Corporation

Human Rights Commission

Independent Police Conduct Authority

Law Commission

Maritime New Zealand

Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Board

New Zealand Antarctic Institute

New Zealand Artificial Limb Service

New Zealand Blood Service

New Zealand Film Commission

New Zealand Fire Service Commission

New Zealand Lotteries Commission

New Zealand Productivity Commission

New Zealand Qualifications Authority

New Zealand Symphony Orchestra

New Zealand Tourism Board

New Zealand Trade and Enterprise

New Zealand Transport Agency

New Zealand Venture Investment Fund Limited

New Zealand Walking Access Commission

Office of Film and Literature Classification

Pharmaceutical Management Agency

Privacy Commissioner

Public Trust

Radio New Zealand Limited

Real Estate Agents Authority

Retirement Commissioner

School Boards of Trustees (2,418)

Social Workers Registration Board

Sport and Recreation New Zealand

Takeovers Panel

Te Reo Whakapuaki Irirangi (Māori Broadcasting Funding Agency)

Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori (Māori Language Commission)

Television New Zealand Limited

Tertiary Education Commission

Tertiary Education institutions (28)

Transport Accident Investigation Commission

WorkSafe New Zealand

Crown entities

Organisations listed in schedule 4 of the Public Finance Act 1989

Agricultural and Marketing Research and Development Trust

Asia New Zealand Foundation

Fish and Game Councils (12)

Game Animal Council

Leadership Development Centre Trust

Māori Trustee

National Pacific Radio Trust

New Zealand Fish and Game Council

New Zealand Game Bird Habitat Trust Board

New Zealand Government Property Corporation

New Zealand Lottery Grants Board

Ngāi Tahu Ancillary Claims Trust

Pacific Co-operation Foundation

Pacific Island Business Development Trust

Reserves Boards (20)

Sentencing Council

Te Ariki Trust

Non-listed companies in which the Crown is majority or sole shareholder (Public Finance Act schedule 4A companies)

Crown Asset Management Limited

Crown Fibre Holdings Limited

Education Payroll Limited

Fairway Resolution Limited

Health Benefits Limited (ceased operating)

Ōtākaro Limited

Research and Education Advanced Network New Zealand Limited

Southern Response Earthquake Services Limited

Tāmaki Redevelopment Company Limited

The Network for Learning Limited

Legal entities created by Treaty of Waitangi settlement Acts (Public Finance Act schedule 6)

Te Urewera

Others

Education Council of Aotearoa New Zealand

Regenerate Christchurch

Subsidiaries of SOEs, Crown entities and other government entities are consolidated by their parents and not listed separately in this table.

Note 2: Key Assumptions and Judgements

These financial statements reflect the financial position (service potential and financial capacity) as at 30 June 2016, and the financial results of operations and cash flows for the year ended on that date. Underpinning these financial statements are a number of judgements, estimations and assumptions. These include assumptions and judgements about the future, in particular, the service benefits and future cash flows in relation to existing assets and liabilities.

Key assumptions

The estimations in these financial statements are based on the best information available at the time of their preparation. Given the inherent uncertainty of predicting the future, actual events are likely to differ from these assumptions, which may have a material impact on the results reported in these financial statements. Some of the key assumptions are discussed below.

The valuation of many assets and liabilities are based on assumptions using market information. The most significant of these are:

Key assumptions
Key Assumption Methodology
Foreign exchange rates Foreign currency denominated financial assets and liabilities are translated to New Zealand dollars at the reporting date. 
Share prices Listed share investments, which consist of approximately 95% of the Government's total share investments, are based on quoted market prices at balance date.
Interest rates The majority of marketable securities and borrowings are valued using current market yield curves.
Carbon price The carbon price has been determined by the Ministry for the Environment based on the quoted NZU spot price at the end of the reporting date as published by OM Financial Limited on their CommTrade Carbon website.
Property prices Where possible property owned by the Crown is valued using market evidence.  Property prices in relation to land and buildings can therefore impact the value of the Crown's assets.

A number of long-term assets and liabilities are valued by estimating future cash flows which are then discounted to present value. Some of the cash flows, in particular those relating to long-term liabilities (eg, ACC and GSF obligations) use assumptions to predict cash flows up as far as 80 years into the future. Therefore, changes in a number of economic assumptions can have a significant impact of the Government's financial position and performance. The most significant of these assumptions are:

Key assumptions
Key Assumption Methodology
Inflation rates Inflation rate assumptions are used to help estimate future cash flows, as prices are expected to increase through time.  The consumer price index (CPI) is often used to indicate the inflation rate.  However, some costs are assumed to increase faster than the rate of inflation (referred to as superimposed inflation) due to factors such as innovation in medical treatment.
Discount rates (time value of money) Discount rates are used to determine the value of future cash flows in today's dollar values.  The Treasury sets a risk free discount rate for accounting valuation purposes. In the near term discount rates are based on market data and then smoothed to a single long-term risk-free interest rate of 4.75%. A full description of the evidence and methodology used to determine this rate can be found at http://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/guidance/reporting/accounting/discountrates.
Amount and duration of future cash flows

Judgements around the duration of future cash flows are critical for valuations.  Some examples of this are:

  • the length of rehabilitation from injuries for the ACC obligation
  • mortality rates for the GSF obligation
  • repayment rates of student loans.

These assumptions are largely based on extrapolating historical experience.  As time goes on, better information becomes available and estimates are updated to reflect more current information.

Sensitivity of key assumptions

The tables below outline the sensitivity of the key assumptions discussed above on the significant valuations included in these financial statements.

The value of financial assets and financial liabilities are particularly sensitive to changes in market prices and account for a significant portion of the financial position. At 30 June 2016 financial assets totalled $125.8 billion (2015: $123.3 billion) while financial liabilities totalled $127.2 billion (2015: $126.0 billion).

Sensitivity of key assumptions
Impact on operating balance
2016
$m
2015
$m
Increase in NZ interest rates 1% (100 basis points) (896) (492)
Decrease in NZ interest rate 1% (100 basis points) 926 539
NZ dollar exchange rate strengthens by 10% (963) (907)
NZ dollar exchange rate weakens by 10% 1,087 1,043
Share prices strengthen by 10% 2,394 2,522
Share prices weaken by 10% (2,394) (2,522)
NZD carbon price increases by $1 (127) (126)
NZD carbon price decreases by $1 127 126

In relation to assumptions concerning property prices, land and buildings account for 57% of total property, plant and equipment and 65% of the asset revaluation reserve. A significant decline in property prices would not impact the operating balance but would reduce net worth.

Long term liabilities such as the ACC claims liability ($39.1 billion) and the GSF retirement plan ($12.4 billion) are particularly sensitive to the assumptions associated with estimating discounted cash flows. The table below outlines the sensitivity of those liabilities to key assumptions:

Sensitivity of key assumptions
Change Impact on operating balance
2016
$m
2015
$m

Sensitivity of assumptions

 
Risk-free discount rate +1% 6,967 5,457
-1% (9,139) (7,062)
Inflation rates (including superimposed inflation) +1% (9,100) (7,074)
-1% 7,048 5,545
Average weighted term to settlement from reporting date (ACC only) +1 year 1,106 902
   -1 year (1,141) (930)
Social rehabilitation benefits - superimposed inflation +1% (3,336) (2,517)
  after four years for serious injury claims (ACC only) -1% 2,445 1,860

Note 2: Key Assumptions and Judgements (continued)

Areas of significant estimation

Along with the assumptions used above, these financial statements include estimations that include a number of uncertainties (discussed below).

Areas of significant estimation
Key estimation Basis of estimation
Recognition of tax revenue

The New Zealand tax system is predicated on self-assessment where taxpayers are expected to understand the tax laws and comply with them. This has an impact on the completeness of tax revenues when taxpayers fail to comply with tax laws, for example, if they do not report all of their income.

Income tax

Income tax revenue is recognised on an accruals basis in the period the taxable event occurs. It is deemed to accrue evenly over the period to which it relates.

Where income tax returns have not been filed for the relevant period, accrued income tax revenue receivable or payable has been estimated based on current provisional assessments or prior year terminal assessments. The outcome of income tax revenue and refunds is not known with certainty until income tax returns for the period have been filed. This usually occurs sometime after the publication of these financial statements. 

The measurement of the tax revenue accruals requires significant estimates where terminal tax assessments are not yet available for the period. Key features of the estimation used are as follows:

  • Where taxpayers subject to the provisional tax regime have not yet filed a terminal tax assessment for the period, revenue is recognised based on provisional tax at balance date plus estimated provisional tax due after the balance date that relates to the current period. The estimation of provisional tax due after balance date uses forecast cash flows from Treasury which are based on assumptions in the Treasury's most recent Economic and Fiscal Update. A key assumption in this estimation is the split of cash receipts between terminal and provisional tax. This split is calculated based on historical information. A change in the assumption may change the amount of revenue recognised.
  • Where taxpayers have made payments to Inland Revenue but have not submitted a provisional tax assessment for the period, their credit balance is accrued as revenue. Payments into the tax pool are not captured by this approach as payments into the tax pool are not limited to provisional tax and information as to their nature is not available. At year-end this is not considered to be material as provisional assessments should have been filed for the year-end.
  • For individual taxpayers not subject to provisional tax, an estimate is made of the tax revenues receivable and refundable based on prior year returns adjusted for current year experience.
  • For company taxpayers not subject to provisional tax for the current year, revenue is recognised when terminal tax is assessed, i.e. no estimate of tax revenue is accrued in the period of the taxable event. This is because a reliable estimate cannot be made in the period of the taxable event.

Business Transformation

The Inland Revenue (IR) is currently undertaking a major business transformation process which involves implementing a new core IT platform, START (Simplified Tax And Revenue Technology).  As with any major transformation, the IR may identify things that they can or should be doing differently.  As maintaining the integrity of the tax system is critical, any systematic or procedural issues that are identified are, and will be resolved in a timely and accurate way.

State Highway network

There are some uncertainties about the values assigned to different components (formation, bridges, etc) of the state highway network.  These uncertainties include whether the New Zealand Transport Agency's (NZTA) databases have accurate quantities and lives and whether there is complete capture for some cost components.  Some uncertainties are inherent, but those arising from both the quantity and costs of components can be reduced by improvements in the accuracy of the underlying databases.

The NZTA has identified a few instances where some of the quantities and costs have not been captured in the underlying databases relied upon by the valuer.

Additional ‘brownfield' costs associated with road construction (eg, traffic management) in urban areas are assessed as being the most significant part of the potential undervaluation, with the remaining due to incomplete records.  An allowance to recognise these costs has been included for the current and the previous years. However, historic ‘brownfield' costs cannot be reliably measured and are currently excluded from the valuation.

Rail network

The rail network infrastructure used for freight services (including dual use assets required for freight operations) is measured at fair value, reflecting the amount that could be expected to be received from a third party in an orderly transaction.  The portion of dual use assets not required for freight operations and metro only assets are reported in these financial statements at an optimised depreciated replacement cost basis, as the community benefits enabled by this investment do not provide a return at the whole-of-Government level.  

The valuation of the freight services on a commercial basis reflects the objectives of the Government to achieve a commercial return on those assets.  Any change from a commercial valuation to public benefit valuation at optimised depreciated replacement cost would result in a significant increase in the reported value of rail assets.

Electricity generation assets There are a number of key assumptions used to value electricity generation assets.  These assumptions relate to future revenue streams and expenses and generation volumes, as well as the discount rate used to calculate the present value of those revenues and expenses. 
Canterbury recovery

The measurement of the Government's earthquake-related assets and liabilities contain a number of uncertainties.  The largest and most complex valuations have been carried out by independent professional actuaries and represent a best estimate of the costs and income to be settled in the future.  Such complex valuations need actuaries and other independent experts to make a number of assessments such as the number of outstanding claims, the amount of claims, the time expected to rebuild or repair damaged property or infrastructure and making judgements over the escalation of costs due to building inflation in the Canterbury construction industry. 

In particular, significant uncertainty continues to exist for EQC land claims where there has been severe land damage, because of a very complex land claims environment and the fact that relatively few land claims have been settled to date.  As claims are settled and the reasonableness of assumptions are refined and tested against the emerging experience over time, the level of this uncertainty will reduce. 

Other uncertainties

In addition to those items on the statement of financial position there are a number of liabilities or assets that may arise in the future but are not recognised. This is because they are dependent on an uncertain future event occurring or the liability/asset cannot be measured reliably. If these contingencies crystallised, there will be an associated impact on the operating balance and net worth of the Crown. These contingencies are reported in note 28 of these financial statements.

Risk management

The Crown's financial position at balance date is exposed to risks through possible changes in the key assumptions and judgements described above that could materially impact on the value of the Crown's assets and liabilities.

The Crown's current risk management framework generally involves holding individual government reporting entities responsible for managing the risks that they individually face, subject to legislation and central guidance such as the Public Finance Act and Treasury Instructions. Resilience is supported through relatively low debt levels and a strong financial position.

The Crown is exposed to changes in market conditions (eg, interest rates). Further discussion on the risk management of financial instruments can be found in note 29.

Note 3: Sovereign Revenue

Sovereign Revenue
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Direct Income Tax Revenue  
Individuals  
26,364 26,578 Source deductions 27,019 25,309
5,584 5,705 Other persons 5,786 5,848
(1,696) (1,698) Refunds (1,739) (1,595)
540 529 Fringe benefit tax 502 514
30,792 31,114 Total individuals 31,568 30,076
Corporate Tax  
9,785 10,578 Gross companies tax 10,566 9,972
(148) (240) Refunds (238) (143)
506 624 Non-resident withholding tax 734 470
2 (9) Foreign-source dividend withholding payments (8) (3)
10,145 10,953 Total corporate tax 11,054 10,296
Other Direct Income Tax  
2,094 1,791 Resident withholding tax on interest revenue 1,667 1,830
537 590 Resident withholding tax on dividend revenue 626 543
2,631 2,381 Total other direct income tax 2,293 2,373
43,568 44,448 Total direct income tax 44,915 42,745
Indirect Income Tax Revenue  
Goods and Services Tax  
30,242 28,969 Gross goods and services tax 29,366 28,123
(11,949) (10,840) Refunds (11,158) (10,954)
18,293 18,129 Total goods and services tax 18,208 17,169
Other Indirect Taxation  
1,790 1,825 Petroleum fuels excise and duty1 1,876 1,739
1,506 1,620 Tobacco excise and duty1 1,710 1,507
1,339 1,345 Road user charges 1,381 1,283
944 932 Alcohol excise and duty1 947 910
160 127 Other customs duty 127 214
498 505 Miscellaneous indirect taxation 504 488
6,237 6,354 Total other indirect taxation 6,545 6,141
24,530 24,483 Total indirect taxation 24,753 23,310
68,098 68,931 Total taxation revenue 69,668 66,055
Other Sovereign Revenue  
2,941 2,766 ACC levies 2,819 3,276
357 371 Fire service levies 372 351
281 284 EQC levies 280 281
278 275 Child support and working for families penalties 278 283
110 104 Court fines 100 110
639 837 Other miscellaneous items 794 652
4,606 4,637 Total other sovereign revenue 4,643 4,953
72,704 73,568 Total sovereign revenue 74,311 71,008
  1. Includes customs excise-equivalent duty.

More detailed information on tax revenue and receipts can be found at www.treasury.govt.nz/government/revenue/taxoutturn.

Note 4:  Sales of Goods and Services

Sales of Goods and Services
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
8,082 7,778 Sales of goods1 7,566 7,788
8,962 8,840 Rendering of services 8,798 8,577
17,044 16,618 Total sales of goods and services 16,364 16,365
  1. Comparatives have been restated to reflect a change in electricity hedge settlements previously reported on a gross basis.

Note 5:  Interest Revenue and Dividends

Interest Revenue and Dividends
2016 Forecast Note Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
605 594 Student loans (interest unwind) 17 603 604
1,499 1,336 Other financial assets classified as amortised cost or available for sale 1,267 1,348
3 5 Financial assets classified as held for trading 5 6
1,277 994 Financial assets classified as fair value through the operating balance 913 844
3,384 2,929 Total interest revenue 2,788 2,802
680 792 Dividends 815 722
4,064 3,721 Total interest revenue and dividends 3,603 3,524

Student loans are advanced on an interest-free basis, therefore they are discounted to reflect their fair value.

The interest unwind reflects the increase in value as the period to repayment reduces.

Note 6:  Other Revenue

Other Revenue
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
1,385 1,322 Rental revenue 1,314 1,272
259 220 Sale of royalties 235 293
5 42 EQC insurance claim on reinsurers 12 (44)
1,931 2,023 Other revenue 2,320 2,094
3,580 3,607 Total other revenue 3,881 3,615

Note 7: Transfer Payments and Subsidies

Transfer Payments and Subsidies
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
12,256 12,261 New Zealand superannuation 12,267 11,591
1,837 1,824 Family tax credit 1,793 1,854
1,616 1,674 Jobseeker support and emergency benefit 1,671 1,684
1,519 1,524 Supported living payment 1,523 1,515
1,137 1,135 Accommodation assistance 1,164 1,129
1,187 1,151 Sole parent support 1,153 1,186
774 766 Income related rent subsidy 755 703
720 701 KiwiSaver subsidies 698 856
577 568 Other working for families tax credits 559 549
542 530 Official development assistance 534 513
529 496 Student allowances 486 511
379 377 Disability allowances 377 377
1,409 1,414 Other social assistance benefits 1,332 1,255
24,482 24,421 Total transfer payments and subsidies 24,312 23,723

Note 8:  Personnel Expenses

Personnel Expenses
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
20,053 20,639 Salaries and wages 20,370 19,851
376 293 Costs incurred on GSF and other defined benefit plans 309 375
406 405 Costs incurred on defined contribution plans (eg, KiwiSaver) 498 446
759 446 Other personnel expenses 586 452
21,594 21,783 Total personnel expenses 21,763 21,124

Key management personnel compensation was $10 million (2015: $10 million). This reflects salaries, benefits and allowances. Key management personnel are the 28 Ministers of the Crown who are members of the Executive Council (including the Prime Minister).

The Ministers remuneration and other benefits are set out by the Remuneration Authority under the Members of Parliament (Remuneration and Services) Act 2013. Members of Parliament, including members of the Executive, have access to other non-cash entitlements as determined by the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Details of these entitlements (eg, travel discounts) can be found on the New Zealand Parliament website (www.parliament.govt.nz).

Note 9:  Other Operating Expenses

Other Operating Expenses
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
5,174 5,304 Grants and subsidies 4,962 4,566
1,271 1,223 Rental and leasing costs 1,266 1,188
651 641 Amortisation and impairment of non-financial assets 963 969
1,351 1,187 Impairment of financial assets 861 1,243
773 806 Cost of concessionary lending 747 696
555 511 Lottery prize payments 537 473
226 255 Inventory expenses 261 459
5 3 Fees paid to audit firms other than the Auditor-General (refer below) 5 4
28,125 27,766 Other operating expenses1 27,230 26,780
38,131 37,696 Total other operating expenses 36,832 36,378
  1. Comparatives have been restated to reflect a change in electricity hedge settlements previously reported on a gross basis.

Operating expenses relate to those expenses incurred in the course of undertaking the functions and activities of entities included in the financial statements of the Government, excluding those expenses separately identified in the statement of financial performance and other notes.

Audit fees paid to the Controller and Auditor-General

Fees paid to the Controller and Auditor-General (including audit service providers) for the audit of the financial statements of the Government and its reporting entities were $40.8 million (2015: $40.0 million). Fees for assurance and related services paid to the Controller and Auditor-General were $0.4 million (2015: $0.6 million). As the Controller and Auditor-General is part of the Government reporting entity these fees are eliminated on consolidation.

Note 10: Interest Expenses

Interest Expenses
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
4,550 4,278 Financial liabilities classified as amortised cost 4,153 4,330
80 175 Financial liabilities classified as fair value
through the operating balance
144 192
57 19 Interest unwind on provisions 39 41
4,687 4,472 Total interest expenses 4,336 4,563

Note 11: Insurance Expenses

Insurance Expenses
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
By entity  
4,317 4,079 Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) 4,166 4,104
57 128 Earthquake Commission (EQC) 337 (357)
(49) 117 Southern Response 200 335
23 11 Other 22 28
4,348 4,335 Total insurance expenses 4,725 4,110

The remainder of note 11 provides additional information on the insurance expenses for ACC.

Note 31 contains further discussion on total costs of the earthquakes to the Crown.

An analysis of the insurance liabilities is provided in note 22. Given the uncertainty over the cost of outstanding insurance claims, it is likely that the final cost will be different from the original liability established.

Analysis of ACC Insurance Expense

Analysis of ACC Insurance Expense
Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
By type  
Claims expense 9,577 5,593
Movement in unearned premium deficiency liability 103 265
Other underwriting expenses 129 101
Total ACC claims and other expenses 9,809 5,959
Less expenses reported elsewhere in the
statement of financial performance
 
Actuarial gain/(loss) - (refer note 13) (5,099) (1,352)
Operating costs relating to claims (544) (503)
Total ACC insurance expenses
(excluding gains/(losses) and operations)
4,166 4,104

Net claims incurred in the table below refers to the adjustment in the liability arising from claims incurred in the current financial year and reassessment of claims incurred in previous years. This reassessment results from new information on these claims (including new claims relating to incidents incurred in previous years) and changes in assumptions.

Insurance Expenses
Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
ACC Claims Incurred  
Current year net ACC claims incurred  
Gross claims incurred and related expenses - undiscounted 7,017 7,510
Discount and discount movement (3,072) (3,913)
Total current year net claims incurred 3,945 3,597
Previous years' net ACC claims incurred  
Reassessment of gross claims and expenses - undiscounted (8,187) (8,051)
Discount and discount movement 13,819 10,047
Total previous years' net claims incurred 5,632 1,996
ACC claims expense 9,577 5,593

The underwriting surplus/(deficit) below represents the net effect on the statement of financial performance from claims incurred and premiums levied during the year. It includes actuarial gains/(losses).

Insurance Expenses
Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Net ACC Underwriting Result  
Premium revenue (refer to note 3) 2,819 3,276
Less claims and other expenses (9,809) (5,959)
Net ACC underwriting surplus/(deficit) (6,990) (2,683)
ACC operating cash flows associated with
the underwriting result are:
 
Cash receipts 3,137 3,170
Cash payments (3,385) (3,057)
Net ACC operating cash flows (248) 113

Note 12:  Gains and Losses on Financial Instruments

Gains and Losses on Financial Instruments
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
30 853 Foreign exchange gains on financial assets and financial liabilities measured at amortised cost 348 1,449
5 (127) Foreign exchange losses on financial assets and financial liabilities measured at amortised cost (60) (241)
1 (1) Change in fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities classified as held for trading (2) (1)
(6) (8) Gains/(losses) on disposal of financial assets and financial liabilities measured at amortised cost (26) 6
1,193 958 Change in fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities classified as fair value through the operating balance (2,501) 10,029
1,223 1,675 Net gains/(losses) on financial assets and financial liabilities (2,241) 11,242
1,337 (634) Net gain/(loss) on derivatives 3,358 (5,046)
2,560 1,041 Net gains/(losses) on financial instruments 1,117 6,196

Note 13:  Gains and Losses on Non-Financial Instruments

Gains and Losses on Non-Financial Instruments
2016 Forecast Note Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
(3,065) Actuarial gains/(losses) on ACC outstanding claims 11 (5,099) (1,352)
(898) Actuarial gains/(losses) on GSF liability 23 (2,028) (322)
(558) Gains/(losses) on the Emissions Trading Scheme 24 (1,503) (366)
Foreign exchange gains/(losses) 2 (2)
(45) (30) Gains/(losses) on disposal or revaluation of property, plant and equipment (18) 401
55 Other gains/(losses) on non-financial instruments 10 (8)
(45) (4,496) Net gains/(losses) on non-financial instruments (8,636) (1,649)

The ACC and GSF liabilities are valued by an independent actuary (refer notes 22 and 23). Actuarial gains/(losses) represent differences between actual results and what the actuary had assumed when previously calculating the liability and the effect of changes in actuarial assumptions (experience adjustments).

Note 14: Receivables

Receivables
2016 Forecast   Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
9,290 9,040 Tax receivables 9,161 8,957
3,013 2,364 ACC levy receivables 2,294 2,755
483 604 Social benefit receivables 704 566
159 302 Other levies, fines and penalty receivables 288 254
12,945 12,310 Sovereign receivables 12,447 12,532
29 401 Reinsurance receivables (refer to note 31) 534 1,064
4,494 4,235 Trade and other receivables 3,808 4,006
17,468 16,946 Total receivables 16,789 17,602
    By maturity    
15,743 15,320 Expected to be realised within one year 14,822 15,302
1,725 1,626 Expected to be outstanding for more than one year 1,967 2,300
17,468 16,946 Total receivables 16,789 17,602

In determining the recoverability of a tax or other sovereign receivables, the Government uses information about the extent to which the tax or levy payer is contesting the assessment and experience of the outcomes of such disputes, from lateness of payment, and other information obtained from credit collection actions taken. Due to the size of the tax base, the concentration of credit risk is limited and this is not a risk that is actively managed.

The Government does not hold any collateral or any other credit enhancements over receivables which are past due.

Receivables - 30 June 2016
30 June 2016 Gross
receivable
$m
Impairment
$m
Net
receivable
$m
Tax receivables 12,927 (3,766) 9,161
ACC levy receivables 2,398 (104) 2,294
Social benefit receivables 1,395 (691) 704
Other levies, fines and penalty receivables 2,800 (2,512) 288
Reinsurance receivables 534 534
Trade and other receivables 3,895 (87) 3,808
Total receivables 23,949 (7,160) 16,789
Receivables - 30 June 2015
30 June 2015 Gross
receivable
$m
Impairment
$m
Net
receivable
$m
Tax receivables 13,172 (4,215) 8,957
ACC levy receivables 2,848 (93) 2,755
Social benefit receivables 1,354 (788) 566
Other levies, fines and penalty receivables 2,757 (2,503) 254
Reinsurance receivables 1,064 1,064
Trade and other receivables 4,074 (68) 4,006
Total receivables 25,269 (7,667) 17,602

Tax receivables, ACC levy receivables and social benefit receivables are considered to be short term, so their carrying value represents a reasonable approximation of their fair value.

Other levies, fines and penalty receivables comprise debtor portfolios administered by Ministry of Justice (ie, court fines) and Inland Revenue (ie, child support). These receivables are recorded at fair value, which on initial recognition represent the face value of the amount owed to the Crown, adjusted to reflect the amount expected to be recoverable. For the current year the initial adjustment from face value to fair value of these receivables was $312 million (2015: $293 million), with $252 million (2015: $226 million) of the adjustment relating to child support debt administered by Inland Revenue.

Social benefit receivables comprise benefit overpayments, advances on benefits and recoverable special needs grants primarily administered by the Ministry of Social Development.

Trade and other receivables are relatively short term, with $3,454 million (2015: $3,736 million) expected to be settled in the next year. Their carrying amount provides a reasonable approximation of their fair value.

Receivables
  Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Tax Receivables    
Gross Tax Receivable    
Current 8,247 8,019
Past due 4,680 5,153
Total gross tax receivable 12,927 13,172
% past due 36.2% 39.1%
Impairment of Tax Receivables    
Opening balance 4,215 4,478
Impairment losses recognised during the year 683 868
Amounts written off as uncollectible (1,132) (1,131)
Closing balance 3,766 4,215
Tax Receivable Net of Impairment    
Current 8,192 7,959
Past due 969 998
Total tax receivable net of impairment 9,161 8,957
% past due 10.6% 11.1%
Ageing of Tax Receivables Past Due (Gross)    
Less than six months 738 975
Between six months and one year 398 337
Between one year and two years 662 680
Greater than two years 2,882 3,161
Total tax receivables past due (Gross) 4,680 5,153

The Inland Revenue Department (IRD) administers the majority of the tax receivable portfolio. The recoverable amount of the portfolio is calculated by forecasting the expected repayments based on analysis of historical debt data, deducting an estimate of service costs and then discounting at the current market rate of 6.0% (2015: 6.0%). If the recoverable amount of the portfolio is less than the carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to the recoverable amount. Alternatively, if the recoverable amount is more, the carrying amount is increased.

Tax receivables are classified as past due when any outstanding tax is not paid by the taxpayer's due date. IRD has debt management policies and procedures to actively manage the collection of past due debt.

Note 15: Marketable Securities, Deposits and Derivatives in Gain

Marketable Securities, Deposits and Derivatives in Gain
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
By type  
38,476 39,180 Marketable securities 40,822 43,770
2,848 5,053 Long term deposits 4,791 5,214
2,950 3,209 Derivatives in gain 5,888 3,015
2,525 2,287 IMF financial assets 1,897 2,299
46,799 49,729 Total marketable securities, deposits and derivatives in gain 53,398 54,298
Expected Realisation  
29,813 32,811 Expected to be realised within one year 31,992 35,006
16,986 16,918 Expected to be held for more than one year 21,406 19,292
46,799 49,729 Total marketable securities, deposits and derivatives in gain 53,398 54,298

Marketable securities comprise bonds, commercial paper, debentures and similar tradable financial assets held by the Government for the purposes of realising capital gains or interest revenue. Marketable securities and derivatives in gain are reported at their fair value. Fair value is either based on quoted market price or using a valuation model if there is no active market. The valuation models used generally calculate the expected cash flows under the terms of each specific contract and then discount these values back to present value.

Long-term deposits are instruments with maturities greater than three months that are not traded in an active market. Long-term deposits are measured at amortised cost. Their carrying amount provides a reasonable approximation of their fair value.

Further information on these financial assets is provided in note 29.

Note 16: Share Investments

Share Investments
2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Expected Realisation  
14,807 14,167 Expected to be realised within one year 13,407 15,161
11,114 11,276 Expected to be held for more than one year 10,810 10,247
25,921 25,443 Total share investments 24,217 25,408

Share investments are reported at fair value. The fair value of listed share investments is based on quoted market prices. The fair value of unlisted share investments is determined from the initial cost of the investment and adjusted for performance of the business and changes in equity market conditions since purchase.

Further information on these financial assets is provided in note 29.

Note 17: Advances

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

By type

 
17,446 16,640 Kiwibank loans and advances 16,689 15,598
9,171 9,097 Student loans 8,982 8,864
2,052 1,767 Other advances 2,563 2,035
28,669 27,504 Total advances 28,234 26,497

Further information on the management of risks associated with these financial assets is provided in note 29.

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Kiwibank Loans and Advances

 

By maturity

 
1,221 1,165 Expected to be repaid within one year 1,267 1,059
16,225 15,475 Expected to be outstanding for more than one year 15,422 14,539
17,446 16,640 Total Kiwibank Loans and Advances 16,689 15,598

Impairment of Kiwibank Loans and Advances

 
Opening balance 53 59
Impairment losses recognised 21 17
Amounts written off as uncollectible (11) (19)
Impairment losses reversed (10) (4)
Closing balance 53 53
Collective impairment allowance 44 41
Individual impairment allowance 9 12
Impairment of Kiwibank Loans and Advances 53 53

Ageing of Kiwibank Loans Past Due But Not Impaired

 
Less than six months 108 134
Between six months and one year
Greater than one year    - 
Total Kiwibank loans past due but not impaired 108 134

Kiwibank loans are measured at amortised cost. The fair value of Kiwibank loans is $16,804 million (2015: $15,704 million). This fair value is based on a discounted cash flow model with reference to market interest rates, prepayment rates and estimated credit losses.

The maximum loss due to default on Kiwibank mortgages is the carrying value reported in the statement of financial position. Collateral is obtained to mitigate any risk of loss, which in the case of Kiwibank mortgages are primarily in the form of properties. The fair value of the collateral provided is sufficient to ensure that the Crown will recover the entire amount owing over the life of the mortgage and there is reasonable assurance that collection efforts will result in payment of the amounts due in a timely manner.

2016 Forecast Note Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Student Loans

 
15,375 15,287 Nominal value 15,340 14,837
(6,204) (6,190) Write-down on initial recognition and impairment (6,358) (5,973)
9,171 9,097 Total student loans 8,982 8,864
Gross carrying value 10,838 10,580
Impairment of student loans (1,856) (1,716)
Total student loans 8,982 8,864

By maturity

 
Expected to be repaid within one year 1,209 1,122
Expected to be outstanding for more than one year 7,773 7,742
Total student loans 8,982 8,864

Movement During the Year

 
8,878 8,864 Opening balance 8,864 8,716
1,583 1,539 Net new lending (excluding fees) 1,512 1,518
12 10 New lending - establishment fee 10 11
(646) (670) Initial write-down to fair value (659) (602)
(1,161) (1,191) Repayments made during the year (1,208) (1,114)
605 594 Interest unwind 5 603 604
(100) (49) Movement in impairment during the year (140) (269)
9,171 9,097 Closing balance student loans 8,982 8,864

Impairment of Student Loans

 
Opening balance 1,716 1,447
Impairment losses recognised during the year 175 272
Amounts written off as uncollectible (35) (3)
Impairment losses reversed
Closing balance 1,856 1,716

The student loan scheme is intended to provide a cost effective means of enabling a wide range of people to access tertiary education, gaining knowledge and skills that enhance the economic and social wellbeing of New Zealand. No interest on loans to New Zealand residents is charged and there are no repayments required from those with very low incomes. Loans of those who die or become bankrupt are written off.

Student loans are recognised initially by writing the amount lent down to fair value plus transaction costs. Subsequently student loans are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, including the annual impairment figure.

Fair value on initial recognition of student loans is determined by projecting forward estimated repayments from borrowers under the scheme and discounting them back at an appropriate discount rate.

The student loan valuation model reflects current student loan policy and macroeconomic assumptions. As such, the carrying value is sensitive to changes in a number of underlying assumptions, including future income levels, repayment behaviour and macroeconomic factors such as inflation and the discount rates used to determine the effective interest rate on new borrowers.

Actual
30 June 2016 30 June 2015
Significant assumptions behind the carrying value are:  
Effective interest rate - weighted average 6.9% 7.0%
Interest rate applied to loans for overseas borrowers 3.6%-5.5% 4.5%-6.2%
Consumer Price Index 0.4%-2.0% 0.3%-2.5%
Future salary inflation 1.1%-3.0% 2.3%-3.5%

In contrast to the amortised cost approach described above, fair value is the amount for which the loans could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm's-length transaction as at 30 June 2016. It is determined by discounting the cash flows at an appropriate discount rate.

Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Fair value of the student loan portfolio 9,794 9,267
Impact on fair value of a 1% increase in discount rate (558) (492)
Impact on fair value of a 1% decrease in discount rate 630 554

The fair value differs from the carrying value due to changes in market interest rates at reporting date. The carrying value is not adjusted for such changes as it is valued using the effective interest rate determined when the loan was initially drawn. However, the fair value was calculated on a discount rate that was current at 30 June 2016. At that date the fair value was calculated on a discount rate (including expenses) of 5.4% (2015: 6.2%) whereas a weighted average effective interest rate of 6.9% (2015: 7.0%) was used for the carrying value.

Through the everyday operations of the student loan scheme the Government is exposed to the risk that borrowers will default on their obligation to repay their loans or die before their loan is repaid. The student loan scheme does not require borrowers to provide any collateral or security to support their borrowings. As the total sum advanced is widely dispersed over a large number of borrowers, the scheme does not have any material individual concentrations of credit risk. The credit risk is reduced by collection of repayments through the tax system.

The Student Loan Scheme Annual Report contains more information on the student loan scheme. This can be found at: http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/student_loan_scheme_annual_reports

Note 18: Property, Plant and Equipment

For the year ended 30 June 2016 Total
$m
Land
$m
Buildings
 $m
State highways
$m
Electricity generation assets
$m
Electricity distribution network
$m
Aircraft (excluding military)
$m
Specialist military equipment
$m
Specified cultural and heritage assets
$m
Rail network
$m
Other plant and equipment
$m

Gross carrying amount

                     
Opening balance 1 July 2015 138,681 39,912 30,703 21,034 14,995 5,361 3,291 3,484 3,521 1,558 14,822
Additions 7,608 240 2,671 1,869 80 157 980 259 19 176 1,157
Disposals (1,747) (275) (506) (299) (10) (30) (43) (2) (13) (569)
Net revaluations 6,371 5,209 768 (210) 816 (255) 43
Transfers from/(to) assets held for sale (998) (192) (168) (46) 5 (87) (510)
Other (109) 65 (45) (1) (87) (26) (1) 1 (15)
Total gross carrying amount 149,806 44,959 33,423 22,347 15,799 5,488 3,860 3,740 3,570 1,735 14,885

Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment

                 
Opening balance 1 July 2015 14,123 1,789 256 1,254 19 404 517 575 9,309
Eliminated on disposal (399) (42) (3) (24) (14) (1) (7) (308)
Eliminated on transfer to held for sale (108) (1) (67) (40)
Eliminated on revaluation (2,475) (1,235) (407) (581) (234) (1) (17)
Impairment losses charged to operating balance 288 33 172 83
Depreciation expense 3,912 1,388 407 416 184 297 303 27 29 861
Other (34) 1 (8) 1 (1) (36) (1) 10
Total accumulated depreciation and impairment 15,307 1,933 80 1,415 670 535 776 9,898
Carrying value as at 30 June 2016 134,499 44,959 31,490 22,347 15,719 4,073 3,860 3,070 3,035 959 4,987

By holding

                 
Leasehold 2,952 331 2 2,575 44
Public Private Partnerships 963 88 630 245
Freehold (excluding PPP) 130,584 44,871 30,529 22,102 15,717 4,073 1,285 3,070 3,035 959 4,943
  134,499 44,959 31,490 22,347 15,719 4,073 3,860 3,070 3,035 959 4,987

The total amount of property, plant and equipment under construction is $2,083 million

For the year ended
30 June 2015
Total
$m
Land
$m
Buildings
 $m
State highways
$m
Electricity generation assets
$m
Electricity distribution network
$m
Aircraft (excluding military)
$m
Specialist military equipment
$m
Specified cultural and heritage assets
$m
Rail network
$m
Other plant and equipment
$m

Gross carrying amount

                   
Opening balance 1 July 2014 129,449 37,139 28,952 19,702 14,275 5,183 2,304 3,028 3,471 1,364 14,031
Additions 7,229 293 1,968 1,637 149 280 635 458 26 218 1,565
Disposals (1,211) (255) (156) (61) (25) (49) (48) (3) (7) (607)
Net revaluations 3,064 2,869 (167) (400) 462 268 32
Transfers from/(to) assets held for sale (194) (82) (24) (4) (45) (39)
Other 344 (52) 130 156 138 (53) 177 1 (1) (24) (128)
Total gross carrying amount 138,681 39,912 30,703 21,034 14,995 5,361 3,291 3,484 3,521 1,558 14,822

Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment

                   
Opening balance 1 July 2014 13,143 1,556 (7) 334 1,191 17 138 496 428 8,990
Eliminated on disposal (655) (77) 7 (19) (15) (13) (6) (532)
Eliminated on transfer to held for sale (235) (57) (9) (95) (38) (36)
Eliminated on revaluation (2,159) (960) (523) (517) (159)
Impairment losses charged to operating balance 78 60 82 2 118 (184)
Depreciation expense 3,873 1,270 523 432 174 210 293 27 26 918
Other 78 (3) (47) (1) (27) 3 153
Total accumulated depreciation and impairment 14,123 1,789 256 1,254 19 404 517 575 9,309
Carrying value as at 30 June 2015 124,558 39,912 28,914 21,034 14,739 4,107 3,272 3,080 3,004 983 5,513

By holding

                   
Leasehold 2,557 9 202 2 2,284 60
Public Private Partnerships 582 22 398 162
Freehold (excluding PPP) 121,419 39,881 28,314 20,872 14,737 4,107 988 3,080 3,004 983 5,453
  124,558 39,912 28,914 21,034 14,739 4,107 3,272 3,080 3,004 983 5,513

The total amount of property, plant and equipment under construction is $1,745 million.

Under Section 55 of the Public Finance Act 1989, borrowing by the Crown is a charge on the revenue of the Crown equally and rateably. Therefore, no property, plant and equipment owned by the core Crown has been pledged as security for liabilities. Government-owned property, plant and equipment is, however, subject to a significant number of legislative and policy restrictions with respect to its use and disposal. Property, plant and equipment owned by State-owned Enterprises and mixed ownership companies has been pledged to secure borrowings and finance lease obligations of $3,153 million (2015: $2,827 million).

These carrying values critically depend on judgements of useful lives to determine depreciation and the assumptions used in revaluations. Depreciation rates are affirmed to be appropriate each year by those responsible for managing the assets, whereas assurance on the assumptions used in valuations is provided by the use of independent valuers as noted below.

The value of the land underneath state highways and the rail network, as well as land set aside for cultural and heritage purposes (ie, national parks, forest parks, conservation areas and recreational facilities) is included in the Land category.

The property, plant and equipment revaluation reserve arises on the revaluation of physical assets. Where revalued property, plant or equipment is sold, the portion of the property, plant and equipment revaluation reserve that relates to that asset, and is effectively realised, is transferred to taxpayer funds.

Property, plant and equipment revaluation reserve Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Opening revaluation reserve 67,107 62,225
Net revaluations 8,413 5,274
Transfers from/(to) taxpayer funds 106 (392)
Closing revaluation reserve 75,626 67,107

Class of Asset

 
Land 30,718 25,579
Building 18,787 16,953
State highways 13,071 12,489
Electricity generation assets 10,267 9,277
Specified cultural and heritage assets 1,440 1,407
Specialist military equipment 332 311
Rail network 13 13
Other plant and equipment 998 1,078
Closing revaluation reserve 75,626 67,107

Net revaluations in the note above exclude movements attributable to minority interests and includes the share of associates revaluation of physical assets. It will therefore differ from the movements on pages 66 and 67.

Note 18: Property, Plant and Equipment (continued)

The remainder of this note provides detailed analysis and information about the following asset classes.

  • Land and Buildings
  • Specified Cultural and Heritage Assets
  • State Highways
  • Specialist Military Equipment
  • Electricity Generation Assets
  • Aircraft
  • Rail Network
  • Public Private Partnerships

Land and Buildings

Breakdown of land and buildings (total valuation over $500m)
  Actual
30 June 2016 Land
$m
Buildings
$m
Total
$m
Housing stock 15,632 8,568 24,200
School property 4,770 9,876 14,646
State highway corridor land 9,757 9 9,766
Conservation estate 5,691 90 5,781
Hospitals 995 4,468 5,463
Rail network corridor land 3,354    -  3,354
Prisons and Department of Corrections 140 2,399 2,539
Defence Force land and buildings 938 1,456 2,394
Landcorp farmland and buildings 1,092 131 1,223
Ministry of Justice land and buildings 487 731 1,218
Police stations 152 491 643
Other 1,951 3,271 5,222
Total land and buildings 44,959 31,490 76,449
Breakdown of land and buildings (total valuation over $500m)
Actual
30 June 2015 Land
$m
Buildings
$m
Total
$m
Housing stock 12,976 7,931 20,907
School property 3,420 8,843 12,263
State highway corridor land 9,307 9 9,316
Conservation estate 5,521 93 5,614
Hospitals 891 4,214 5,105
Rail network corridor land 3,360    -  3,360
Prisons and Department of Corrections 141 1,977 2,118
Defence Force land and buildings 620 1,214 1,834
Landcorp farmland and buildings 1,173 127 1,300
Ministry of Justice land and buildings 443 607 1,050
Police stations 163 531 694
Other 1,897 3,368 5,265
Total land and buildings 39,912 28,914 68,826
Description Valuer/Reviewer Approach Timing
Housing stock Quotable Value NZ Limited Valuations based on market evidence using sales comparison data. Annual valuation with the latest completed in the 30 June 2016 financial year.
School property Quotable Value Limited or experienced staff (reviewed by Quotable Value Limited) Valuations based on market evidence where possible, or optimised depreciated replacement cost (ODRC). Annual valuation with the latest completed as at 30 June 2016.
State highway corridor land and held properties Darroch Ltd, a registered property valuation company, peer reviewed by Opus International Consultants Ltd with NZTA.

Valued using opportunity cost based on adjacent use as an approximation to fair value.

The valuation for held properties was determined by reference to quoted prices in an active or liquid market unless it is a specialised asset, where the depreciated replacement cost was used.

A full valuation is completed on a rolling regional basis, with each region fully valued at least once every 3 - 5 years. The latest valuation and indexation was completed as at 30 June 2016.
Conservation estate (national parks, forest parks, conservation areas, reserves) Corelogic rateable valuations reviewed by Logan Stone Limited Valued based on rateable valuations where possible.  Land not matched to a rateable valuation was assessed using a calculated average per hectare rate. Annual valuation with the latest completed as at 30 June 2016.
Hospitals Each District Health Board uses an independent valuer Land values were based on market evidence while buildings were valued at ODRC.   Each DHB revalues land and buildings on a three to five year cycle with varying valuation dates.
New Zealand Rail Corporation rail corridor land Darroch Limited Land associated with the rail corridor was valued using an opportunity cost based on adjacent use, as an approximation to fair value. Valuation completed with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from fair value with the latest full valuation completed as at 30 June 2015.
NZ Defence Force Land and Buildings Beca Valuations Limited and updated internally by NZ Defence Force. Valued using market based approaches for land and buildings outside defence areas and updated using indices. And an index/ODRC method for land and buildings inside defence areas. Valuations completed at least once every five years with the latest full independent land and buildings valuation completed as at 30 June 2013. Auckland land has been revalued at 30 June 2016, other land holdings have been updated internally using indices. Buildings have been updated internally using indices with assistance from Beca as at 30 June 2016.

Note 18: Property, Plant and Equipment (continued)

Specified cultural and heritage assets

  Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
National Library 1,010 1,007
Te Papa 924 876
National Archives 625 624
Conservation 442 450
Other 34 47
  3,035 3,004
Description Valuer/Reviewer Approach Timing
National Library collections Webbs The collection was divided into categories by format to associate records that could be said to have a broad commonality of value.  Items were then valued based on market assessments and comparisons with other items of a similar nature. Valuations completed cyclically with all collections valued at least once every three years with the latest full valuation completed as at 30 June 2014.
Te Papa collections

Art, Library, History, Mataraunga Māori, Philatelic, Pacific and International and Photography Collections: Webbs Auckland and Dunbar Sloane.

Natural History Collection: Webbs Auckland & internal experts.

Art, Library, History, Mataraunga Māori, Philatelic, Pacific and International and Photography Collections are valued based on market value by independent valuers. The Natural History Collection is valued at replacement cost value. Valuations completed cyclically with all collections valued at least once every three years with the latest valuations completed as at 30 June 2016.
National Archives Dunbar Sloane The collection was divided into categories by format and age to associate records that could be said to have a broad commonality of value.  Items were then valued based on market assessments and comparisons with other items of a similar nature.  Documents of exceptional value (including Treaty of Waitangi) are valued independently based on overseas market research. Valuations completed cyclically with all collections valued at least once every three years with the latest full valuation completed as at 30 June 2014.
Conservation estate assets including visitor buildings, tracks, roads, fences and infrastructure Internal valuations reviewed by Logan Stone Limited Revaluations use the movement in the appropriate capital goods index as supplied by Statistics New Zealand to estimate the change in asset values. Assets are revalued at least once every five years.  Visitor buildings and roads were valued at fair value effective as at 30 June 2016.

There are difficulties associated with obtaining an objective valuation for the specified cultural and heritage assets of the Government. For example, Crown research institutes own various collections, library resources and databases that are an integral part of the research work they undertake. These collections are highly specialised and there is no reliable basis for establishing a valuation. They have therefore not been valued for financial reporting purposes.

State highways

  Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
State highways 22,347 21,034
Description Valuer/Reviewer Approach Timing
Roads, bridges, culverts, tunnels, underpasses including the formation works, road structure, drainage works and traffic facilities. Opus International Consultants Limited State Highways are valued using the DRC of the existing asset database.  (See below for further comments). A full valuation is completed yearly where the majority of assets are indexed. The latest valuation completed as at 30 June 2016.

There are some uncertainties about the values assigned to different components (eg, formation, bridges) of the state highway network. These uncertainties include whether the New Zealand Transport Agency's (NZTA) databases have accurate quantities and lives and whether there is complete capture for some cost components. Some uncertainties are inherent, but those arising from both the quantity and costs of components are planned to be reduced by improvements in the accuracy of the underlying databases.

Additional ‘brownfield' costs associated with road construction in urban areas (eg, traffic management) are assessed as being the most significant part of the potential undervaluation, with the remaining due to incomplete records. An allowance to recognise these costs has been included for the current and the previous years. However, historic ‘brownfield' costs cannot be reliably measured and are currently excluded from the valuation.

Any adjustments in value affect the Statement of Financial Position only. There is no impact on the operating balance. 

Specialist military equipment

  Actual
  30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
 Specialist military equipment 3,070 3,080
Description Valuer/Reviewer Approach Timing
Specialist military equipment Internal valuations by subject matter experts Valued using an ODRC method.   Valuation completed at least once every five years with the latest valuation being as at 31 December 2013.

 

Note 18: Property, Plant and Equipment (continued)

Electricity generation assets

  Actual
  30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Meridian Energy Limited 7,657 6,990
Mighty River Power Limited (now Mercury NZ Limited) 5,268 5,267
Genesis Energy Limited 2,955 2,644
Inter segment eliminations (161) (162)
Total electricity generation assets 15,719 14,739
Description Valuer/Reviewer Approach Timing
Meridian Energy: Hydro stations, wind and solar farms Independent valuer Based on a revenue approach assessing both the capitalisation of earnings and the discounted cash flow methodology. Revaluations are performed with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair values at the balance date.
Mighty River Power(now Mercury NZ Limited): Hydro and Geothermal stations PwC, Independent valuer Based on net present value of future earnings of the assets on an existing use basis excluding disposal and restoration costs. Annual valuation with the latest completed as at 30 June 2016.
Genesis Energy: Thermal and Hydro stations and Wind farms Internal valuation independently reviewed by an independent valuer Based on the present value of estimated future cash flows of the assets. Valuation completed at least once every five years with the latest valuation being as at 30 June 2016.

There are a number of key assumptions used to value electricity generation assets. These assumptions relate to future revenue streams and expenses and generation volumes, as well as the discount rate used to calculate the present value of those revenues and expenses.

The following tables provide information on each of the entities' key assumptions as disclosed in the individual annual reports of the individual electricity generation companies (part of the State owned enterprises segment). The electricity price path assumptions, stated below, for each electricity generation company are substantially the same. However, the Meridian Energy and Mighty River Power (now Mercury NZ Limited) assumption is conveyed in real terms while Genesis Energy's assumption is in nominal terms. For further information on the valuation of electricity generations assets, refer to the individual annual reports of each entity.

Meridian Energy Limited

Assumption Sensitivity range Valuation Impact on fair value of generation assets
Future NZ electricity price estimates $62/MWh to $78/MWh (in real terms) +/- $3/MWh $419 million / ($419) million
Generation volume 13,033 GWh p.a to 13,386 GWh p.a +/- 250 GWh $124 million / ($124) million
Operating expenditure $256 million p.a. (in real terms) +/- $10 million p.a. ($144) million / $144 million
EBITDAF earnings multiple 12.0 x EBITDAF +/- 0.5x $382 million / ($382) million

Genesis Energy Limited

Assumption Sensitivity range Valuation Impact on fair value of generation assets
Wholesale electricity price path $65/MWh to $111/MWh by 2026 (in nominal terms) +/- 10% $555 million / ($555) million
Generation volume 5,215 GWh to 7,452 GWh +/- 10% $555 million / ($555) million
Discount rate Pre-tax equivalent discount rate of 10.8% +/- 1%. $373 million / ($300) million

Mighty River Power Limited (now Mercury NZ Limited)

Assumption Sensitivity range Valuation Impact on fair value of generation assets
Future wholesale electricity price path $66/MWh to $102/MWh (in real terms) +/- 10% $786 million / ($790) million
Discount rate Post-tax discount rate between 7.4% to 7.9% +/- 0.5% $(521) million / $624 million
Operational expenditure $174 million p.a. +/- 10% ($237) million / $238 million

Aircraft

  Actual
  30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Aircraft (excluding military) 3,860 3,272
Description Valuer/Reviewer Approach Timing
Aircraft and spare engines and flight simulators The Aircraft Value Analysis Company An external valuation is obtained to ascertain indicative market values of each aircraft on a stand-alone basis.   Annual valuation with the latest completed as at 30 June 2016.

Rail network

Recoverable amount
$m
ODRC
$m
30 June 2015
Carrying value
$m
  Recoverable amount
$m
ODRC
$m
30 June 2016
Carrying value
$m
99 4,298 99 Network required for freight 101 4,304 101
13 787 787 Network not required for freight (including metro) 8 769 769
112 5,085 886 Total rail infrastructure 109 5,073 870
    45 Buildings     49
    52 Capital work in progress     40
983 Rail network 959
Description Valuer/Reviewer Approach Timing
Buildings, bridges, tunnels, tracks, level crossings signals and electrification.  All these assets are held on freehold basis.

Buildings - Darroch Limited





Other Rail Network Assets ­ Internal valuation

Non-specialised building assets not on the rail corridor were valued based on market evidence using comparable sales.  Specialised building assets and buildings on rail corridor land were valued using ODRC. 

Railway infrastructure used for freight services (freight only and dual use lines required for freight operations) has been valued using the recoverable amount, being scrap value less costs to sell.

Railway infrastructure not required for freight operations and used for metro has been valued using ODRC reflecting the public benefit nature of these assets.

Valuation completed with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from fair value with the latest full valuation completed as at 30 June 2014 for buildings and 30 June 2016 for other rail network assets.

The rail network comprises around 4,000 kilometres of track (excluding yards and sidings) and is used primarily for freight transport. In addition to freight, the network is used by KiwiRail for long distance passenger transport and access is provided to two regional authorities, Greater Wellington Regional Council and Auckland Transport for metro passenger services. Some tracks are dual purpose (ie, used for both freight and metro), however there are a number of tracks which serve metro transport only (eg, the Johnsonville line). The rail infrastructure earns revenue from freight and long distance passenger charges. In addition, network access charges are collected from the two regional authorities in relation to the metro services.

The rail network infrastructure used for freight services (including dual use assets required for freight operations) is measured at fair value, reflecting the amount that could be expected to be recovered from a third party in an orderly transaction. The portion of dual use assets not required for freight operations and metro only assets are reported in these financial statements at an optimised depreciated replacement cost basis, as the community benefits enabled by this investment do not provide a return at the whole-of-government level.

Prior to the restructuring of KiwiRail as a profit-oriented entity, the total rail network infrastructure was measured on anoptimised depreciated replacement cost basis reflecting the previous focus on it as a non-cash generating asset. If the value of the rail network was still measured using that approach, then a notional depreciation amount of $159 million (2015: $145 million) could be calculated, representing an estimate of the amount of “wear-and-tear” or consumption of the network asset over the year. This estimated “wear-and-tear” compares to the total maintenance and renewal expenditure of $184 million (2015: $195 million) on the rail network during the year.

Public Private Partnerships

  Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Auckland South Corrections Facility 318 328
Transmission Gully 287 162
Education Public Private Partnerships 210 92
Auckland Prison 148    - 
Total public private partnerships 963 582

Carrying value of assets by source

   
Provided by private sector partner 842 557
Existing government assets 121 25
Total public private partnerships 963 582

A public private partnership (also known as a service concession arrangement) is an arrangement between the Government and a private sector partner. The assets in a public private partnership are recognised as assets of the Government. As the assets are progressively constructed, the Government recognises work-in-progress at cost. At the same time a financial liability of the same value is also recognised. When the assets are fully constructed, the total asset cost and the matching financial liability reflect the value of the future compensation to be provided to the private-sector partner for the assets. The Crown’s obligation to pay for these assets is included in other borrowings.

Auckland South Corrections Facility

The Department of Corrections has entered into a service concession arrangement with SecureFuture Wiri Limited to design, build, finance and operate a men's prison at Wiri through a Public Private Partnership. Under the agreement, the Department of Corrections has provided land to the contractor on which to build the prison. The prison commenced operations in May 2015. The contractor will continue to operate and maintain the prison for a period of 25 years, after which responsibility for on-going operation and maintenance will revert to the Department.

Movements in carrying value for Auckland South Corrections Facility
Gross carrying amount Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Opening balance 1 July 329 239
Assets provided by private sector partner(s)    -  81
Existing Government assets    -  9
Total Gross Carrying Amount 329 329

Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment

   
Opening balance 1 July 1    - 
Depreciation expense 10 1
Total accumulated depreciation 11 1
Carrying value as at 30 June 318 328

Transmission Gully Public Private Partnership

The New Zealand Transport Agency has entered into a Project Agreement with Wellington Gateway Partnership for the delivery of a new Transmission Gully State Highway through a Public Private Partnership. The Wellington Gateway Partnership will design, construct, finance, operate and maintain the piece of State Highway. Under the agreement, the New Zealand Transport Agency has provided land to the contractor on which to construct the State Highway. As the State Highway is currently under construction, no depreciation on the asset has been incurred to date. The construction is expected to be completed by 2020, with total expected construction costs of $1.1 billion. The operational agreement runs for 25 years from the service completion date and is expected to cost $1.6 billion after which responsibility for on-going operation and maintenance will revert to the Government.

Movements in carrying value for Transmission Gully
Gross carrying amount Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Opening balance 1 July 162    - 
Assets provided by private sector partner(s) 83 162
Existing Government assets 42    - 
Disposals    -     - 
Net revaluations    -     - 
Other    -     - 
Total Gross Carrying Amount 287 162

Education Public Private Partnerships

The Ministry of Education has entered into two public private partnership (PPP) agreements. The Ministry of Education entered into a PPP agreement with Learning Infrastructure Partners in 2011 for delivery of a new primary and secondary school at Hobsonville Point. Under this agreement Learning Infrastructure Partners undertook finance, design and construction of the primary and secondary school as well as provide the operational services, which comprise building maintenance, landscaping, cleaning and other types of services. Under the agreement the Ministry of Education provided two existing land parcels to the contractor to use valued at $6.9 million. Hobsonville Point Primary School opened in January 2013 and the Hobsonville Point Secondary School opened in February 2014. The agreement runs for a period of 25 years, after which responsibility for ongoing maintenance will revert to the Government.

The Ministry of Education entered into a PPP agreement with Future Schools Partners in 2015 for the delivery of four schools in Auckland, Christchurch and Queenstown. Under this agreement Future Schools Partners have undertaken to finance, design and construct four schools and provide the operational services, which comprise building maintenance, landscaping, cleaning and other types of services. Under the agreement the Ministry of Education provided four land parcels to the contractor to use valued at $23.2 million. The agreement runs for a period of 25 years, after which responsibility for ongoing maintenance will revert to the Government.

Movements in carrying value for Education Public Private Partnerships
Gross carrying amount Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Opening balance 1 July 92 74
Assets provided by private sector partner(s) 98 9
Existing Government assets 23 2
Net revaluations    -  7
Total Gross Carrying Amount 213 92

Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment

   
Opening balance 1 July    -     - 
Depreciation expense 3 3
Reversal of accumulated depreciation on revaluation    -  (3)
Total accumulated depreciation 3    - 
Carrying value as at 30 June 210 92

Auckland Prison

The Department of Corrections has entered into a service concession arrangement with Next Step Partners Limited to design, finance, build and maintain a new maximum security facility at Auckland Prison through a Public Private Partnership. Under the agreement, custodial operations will continue to be carried out by the Department of Corrections. The Department of Corrections has provided land to the contractor on which to build the prison. The prison construction commenced October 2015 and is on target for completion for late 2017. The contractor will continue to maintain the prison for a period of 25 years, after which responsibility for on-going maintenance will revert to the Department. The contractor will also maintain the Auckland West facility which is being integrated with the new facilities via secure links as part of the construction.

Movements in carrying value for Auckland Prison
Gross carrying amount Actual
30 June 2016
$m
30 June 2015
$m
Opening balance 1 July    -     - 
Assets provided by private sector partner(s) 111    - 
Existing Government assets 37    - 
Total Gross Carrying Amount 148    - 

Note 19: Equity Accounted Investments

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget 2015
$m
Budget 2016
$m
30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
9,551 9,925 Tertiary Education Institutions1 10,669 10,168
1,019 1,295 Kaingaroa Timberlands Partnership 1,396 1,312
556 952 Other 640 949
11,126 12,172 Total equity accounted investments 12,705 12,429

Tertiary Education Institutions (TEIs)

TEIs are Crown entities, and the Government has a number of legislative powers with respect to them in the interests of public accountability and has some significant reserve controls in the event of an institution facing financial risk. However, the Government does not determine the operating and financing policies of TEIs, if they are not at financial risk, but rather is committed to safeguarding their academic freedom and autonomy. By so doing, the Government obtains the benefits of an effective tertiary education sector. Their relationship to the Crown is managed by a plan agreed between them and the Tertiary Education Commission.

The applicability of the test for consolidation in accounting standards as it applies to TEIs and the Government is unclear, and is still under consideration by the relevant accounting authorities. In the interim the TEIs have been included in the accounts as a 100% equity accounted investment.

Summarised financial information in respect of TEIs is set out below:

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Operating Results

 
2,315 2,343 Revenue from Crown 2,308 2,259
2,578 2,473 Other revenue 2,683 3,085
(4,643) (4,633) Expenses (4,857) (4,659)
250 183 Net surplus 134 685

Assets

 
1,364 1,792 Financial assets 1 2,221 2,303
9,578 9,442 Property, plant and equipment 9,673 9,173
480 649 Other assets 1,036 650
11,422 11,883 Total assets 12,930 12,126

Liabilities

 
222 230 Borrowings 426 230
1,649 1,728 Other liabilities 1,835 1,728
1,871 1,958 Total liabilities 2,261 1,958
9,551 9,925 Net worth 10,669 10,168
  1. Comparatives have been restated to reflect an adjustment for TEI's grant receivable resulting from the transition to Public Benefit Accounting Standards.

Kaingaroa Timberlands Partnership

The New Zealand Superannuation Fund has a 42% ownership interest (2015: 42%) in Kaingaroa Timberlands Partnership.

New Zealand Local Government Funding Agency (NZLGFA)

The Government holds $5 million of the $25 million paid-up capital of NZLGFA.

For the year ended 30 June 2016, NZLGFA recognised revenue of $278 million (2015: $222 million) and a surplus of $10 million (2015: $9 million). NZLGFA's assets and liabilities were $6,669 million (2015: $5,412 million) and $6,625 million (2015: $5,375 million) respectively. The Crown's share of the net assets is $9 million (2015: $7 million). The Crown is not a guarantor of the LGFA and has no share of any contingent liabilities of the LGFA.

Note 20: Payables

2016 Forecast   Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
  30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

By type

 
7,445 7,325 Accounts payable1 7,508 8,110
4,787 4,763 Taxes repayable 4,521 4,354
12,232 12,088 Total payables 12,029 12,464

By maturity

 
11,230 11,217 Expected to be settled within one year 10,966 11,166
1,002 871 Expected to be outstanding for more than one year 1,063 1,298
12,232 12,088 Total payables 12,029 12,464
  1. Comparatives have been restated to reflect an adjustment for TEI's grant receivable resulting from the transition Public Benefit Accounting Standards.

Government entities have financial internal control procedures in place to ensure that accounts payable are settled accurately and on a timely basis. The carrying value is a reasonable approximation of the fair value for accounts payable, as they are typically short-term in nature.

Taxes repayable represent refunds due to the taxpayer as a result of assessments being filed. Refunds are issued to taxpayers once account and refund reviews are complete. The carrying value is a reasonable approximation of the fair value for taxes repayable.

Note 21: Borrowings

2016 Forecast   Actual
Budget 2015
$m
Budget 2016
$m
  30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

By type

 
64,149 64,045 Government bonds 65,046 58,743
13,936 14,546 Kiwibank  customer deposits 14,113 13,006
7,311 7,657 Settlement deposits with Reserve Bank 6,878 7,931
2,281 4,228 Derivatives in loss 4,577 6,261
3,939 3,407 Treasury bills 3,799 6,734
2,706 2,290 Finance lease liabilities 1,631 1,788
179 190 Government retail stock 201 188
18,876 16,646 Other borrowings 17,711 17,929
113,377 113,009 Total borrowings 113,956 112,580

By maturity

 
34,223 32,893 Expected to be settled within one year 33,109 39,157
79,154 80,116 Expected to be outstanding for more than one year 80,847 73,423
113,377 113,009 Total borrowings 113,956 112,580

By guarantee

 
82,878 83,148 Sovereign-guaranteed debt 84,043 84,008
30,499 29,861 Non-sovereign debt 29,913 28,572
113,377 113,009 Total borrowings 113,956 112,580

This note constitutes a Statement of Borrowings as required by the Public Finance Act 1989.

All principal, interest and other money payable in relation to money borrowed by the core Crown is a charge on, and payable out of, the revenues of the core Crown equally and rateably with all other general borrowing obligations of the core Crown.

The Government is not liable to contribute towards the payments of debts of Government entities, their subsidiaries or any entity in which the Government has an interest or that is controlled or wholly owned by the Government. Exceptions to this rule only occur for items the Government is liable for under any Act, any guarantee given by the Government, by virtue of an action a creditor has against the Government, or liability the Government has to a creditor of the Reserve Bank.

Other borrowings includes $3,820 million (2015: $4,663 million) of sovereign-guaranteed debt administered by the Reserve Bank and New Zealand Debt Management Office (NZDMO).

Government bonds

  Actual
  30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Government bonds measured at amortised cost 63,336 57,246
Government bonds measured at fair value 1,710 1,497
Total Government bonds 65,046 58,743

Government bonds are measured at amortised cost, unless they are managed and their performance is evaluated on a fair value basis. Where a bond is evaluated on a fair value basis it is reported at fair value with movements in fair value reported in the statement of financial performance.

The fair value of Government bonds measured at amortised cost is $70,414 million (2015: $61,269 million). This valuation is based on observable market prices. The reduction in interest rates since the Government bonds were issued results in a fair value greater than amortised cost.

The valuation of Government bonds reported at fair value is also based on observable market prices. New Zealand's Government bonds are rated Aaa by Moody's and AA+ by S&P and Fitch. The rating outlook is stable with Moody's and S&P, and positive with Fitch.

Actual
30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Government bonds measured at fair value

 
Carrying value 1,710 1,497
Amount payable on maturity 1,581 1,345

Kiwibank customer deposits

  Actual
30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Kiwibank customer deposits at amortised cost 14,113 13,006
Total Kiwibank customer deposits 14,113 13,006

Kiwibank customer deposits are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Amortisation and foreign exchange gains and losses, are recognised in the Statement of Financial Performance as is any gain or loss when the liability is derecognised.

The fair value of Kiwibank customer deposits measured at amortised cost is $14,127 million (2015: $13,025 million). For fixed term deposits by customers, fair values have been estimated using a discounted cash flow model with reference to market interest rates. For other deposits by customers, the carrying amount is a reasonable estimate of fair value.

Kiwibank customer deposits exclude deposits held by other government reporting entities and will therefore differ from the total customer deposits reported by Kiwibank.

Treasury bills

Treasury bills are reported at amortised cost. As these are short-term sovereign-issued instruments, the carrying value is not materially affected by changes in Sovereign credit risk and the carrying value approximates the amount payable at maturity.

Settlement deposits with Reserve Bank

Settlement deposits with the Reserve Bank represent the level of money deposited with the Reserve Bank by commercial banks. They act as a liquidity mechanism used to settle wholesale obligations amongst the banks and provide the basis for settling most of the retail transactions that occur every working day between corporates and individuals.

Settlement deposits with the Reserve Bank are technically a form of borrowing by the Reserve Bank, where the liability is matched by a corresponding financial asset (reported as an element of marketable securities and deposits). Settlement deposits are reported at amortised cost, which is equivalent to the amount payable to depositors given the short term (ie, overnight) nature of these liabilities.

Settlement accounts are administered through the Exchange Settlement Account System (ESAS). ESAS account holders generally receive interest at the Official Cash Rate on their end-of-day balances. The Reserve Bank provides collateralised overnight borrowing facilities for banks, at an interest rate set at a margin over the Official Cash Rate.

Other borrowings

  Actual
30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Other borrowings measured at amortised cost 11,706 11,267
Other borrowings measured at fair value 6,005 6,662
Total other borrowings 17,711 17,929

Other borrowings are reported at fair value with movements in fair value reported in the statement of financial performance when they are held for trading or they are managed and their performance is evaluated on a fair value basis.

The fair value of other borrowings measured at amortised cost is $10,695 million (2015: $11,320 million). The fair value of financial liabilities with standard terms and conditions traded on active liquid markets are determined by reference to quoted market prices. Where such prices are not available use is made of estimated discounted cash flow models with reference to market interest rates.

For those other borrowings measured at fair value through profit and loss, the value of these instruments will be affected by changes in interest rates due to credit risk and broader market influences.

The following table identifies the difference between the carrying amount and amount payable at maturity as well as the extent that fair value movements have resulted from changes in credit risk of the issuing entity. The carrying value can differ from the amount actually payable on maturity where the effect of discounting cash flows is material.

  Actual
30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Other borrowings measured at fair value

 
Carrying value 6,005 6,662
Amount payable on maturity 5,819 6,252
Fair value impact from changes in credit risk for the year 35 (356)
Cumulative fair value impact from changes in credit risk 188 (325)

Note 22: Insurance Liabilities

2016 Forecast   Actual
Budget 2015
$m
Budget 2016
$m
  30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

By entity

 
36,842 36,976 ACC liability 39,106 32,518
262 1,908 EQC property damage liability 2,485 2,965
645 710 Southern Response liability 807 1,216
65 62 Other insurance liabilities 57 68
(331) Inter-segment eliminations (329) (336)
37,814 39,325 Total insurance liabilities 42,126 36,431

By component

 
Outstanding claims liability 39,466 34,045
Unearned premium liability 2,019 1,867
Unearned premium liability deficiency 641 519
Other
Total insurance liabilities 42,126 36,431

By maturity

 
Expected to be settled within one year 8,004 6,950
Expected to be outstanding for more than one year 34,122 29,481
Total insurance liabilities 42,126 36,431
Assets arising from insurance obligations are:  
Receivables for premiums 2,253 2,475
Reinsurance claim recoveries 534 1,064

Information on insurance expenses and underwriting results can be found in note 11. Additional information on the risks and uncertainties in relation to the Canterbury earthquakes can be found in note 31. Further information on these liabilities may also be found in the annual reports of each of these entities and on their respective websites.

The objectives, policies and procedures for managing these risks are set out in the governing statutes and policy documents of each entity.

All assets held by the three insurance entities are considered available to back present and future claims obligations. There are no deferred acquisition costs (eg, marketing costs) in respect of insurance obligations at the reporting date.

The outstanding claims liability is the present value of the central estimate of expected payments for claims incurred plus a risk margin.

The unearned premium liability represents premiums received to provide insurance cover after 30 June 2016.

The unearned premium liability deficiency is the extent that the unearned premium liability is insufficient to cover expected future claims (ie, payments for future accidents within the period covered by the premiums received).

The remainder of the note provides a detailed analysis of the ACC insurance liability. This analysis includes a breakdown of the outstanding claims liability, unearned premium liability, and the unearned premium liability deficiency.

Analysis of ACC insurance liability

ACC's insurance obligations arise primarily from the accident compensation scheme provision of no fault personal injury cover for all New Zealand citizens, residents and temporary visitors to New Zealand.

An independent actuarial estimate by PricewaterhouseCoopers, consulting actuaries, has been made of the future expenditure relating to accidents that occurred prior to balance date, whether or not the claims have been reported to or accepted by ACC. The PricewaterhouseCoopers actuarial report is signed by Mr Paul Rhodes, Fellow of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries (UK), Mr Michael Playford, Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries of Australia. Mr Paul Rhodes and Mr Michael Playford are also Fellows of the New Zealand Society of Actuaries.

The actuaries are satisfied with the nature, sufficiency and accuracy of the data used to determine the outstanding claims liability.

  Actual
  30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
The ACC liability comprises:  
ACC outstanding claims liability 36,663 30,328
ACC unearned premium liability 1,873 1,723
ACC unearned premium liability deficiency 570 467
Total ACC liability 39,106 32,518

Analysis of Outstanding ACC Claims Liability

 
Undiscounted outstanding claims liability 67,827 71,940
Discount adjustment (35,370) (45,084)
Risk margin 4,206 3,472
Total outstanding ACC claims liability 36,663 30,328
Discounted central estimate of future payments for outstanding claims 30,471 25,112
Claims handling expenses 1,986 1,744
Outstanding claims liability before risk margin 32,457 26,856
Risk margin 4,206 3,472
Total outstanding ACC claims liability 36,663 30,328

Movement in Outstanding ACC Claims Liability

 
Opening balance 30,328 27,696
Claims incurred for the year 4,272 3,909
Claims paid out in the year (3,917) (3,621)
Discount rate unwind 881 992
Experience adjustments (actuarial gains and losses):  
- actual and assumed claim experience 210 (107)
- change in discount rate 6,355 3,225
- change in inflation rate (1,466) (1,766)
Other movements
Closing outstanding ACC claims liability 36,663 30,328

Movement in ACC Unearned Premium Liability

 
Opening balance 1,723 2,050
Earning of premiums previously deferred (1,723) (2,050)
Deferral of premiums on current year contracts 1,873 1,723
Other
Closing ACC unearned premium liability 1,873 1,723
  Actual
30 June
 2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Analysis of ACC unearned premium liability deficiency

 
Unearned premium liability 1,873 1,723
Adjusted for unearned premium relating to claims arising from medical misadventure premium liabilities without deficiency (118) (122)
Adjusted ACC unearned premium liability 1,755 1,601
Discounted central estimate of payments for insured future claims 2,089 1,868
Central estimate of discounted future reinsurance recoveries
Risk margin 236 200
Present value of expected cash flows for future accident claims 2,325 2,068
Total ACC unearned premium liability deficiency 570 467

Claims development historical analysis

The following table shows the development of ACC's undiscounted claims cost estimates for the seven most recent accident years.

  2010
$m
2011
$m
2012
$m
2013
$m
2014
$m
2015
$m
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m

Estimate of ultimate claims costs:

               
At the end of the accident year 7,035 7,517 6,877 6,794 7,264 7,192 6,884  
One year later 6,739 6,288 6,118 6,608 6,547 6,682  
Two years later 5,939 5,890 5,546 5,762 5,823  
Three years later 5,722 5,310 4,979 5,007  
Four years later 5,274 5,070 4,458  
Five years later 4,723 4,596  
Six years later 4,548              
Current estimate of cumulative claim costs 4,548 4,596 4,458 5,007 5,823 6,682 6,884 37,998
Cumulative payments (1,582) (1,494) (1,479) (1,535) (1,618) (1,576) (972) (10,256)
Outstanding claims undiscounted 2,966 3,102 2,979 3,472 4,205 5,106 5,912 27,742
Discount (15,533)
Claims handling costs 2,240
2009 and prior claims (net present value) 22,199
Short tail outstanding claims 15
Total outstanding ACC claims liability 36,663

Note 22: Insurance Liabilities (continued)

Key Assumptions

The key assumptions and the methodology applied in the valuation of the outstanding ACC claims obligation are as follows:

(i) Risk-free discount rates

The projected cash flows were discounted using a series of forward discount rates at the balance date derived from the yield curve for New Zealand government bonds. The equivalent single effective discount rate taking into account ACC's projected future cash flow patterns is a short term discount rate of 3.22% (2015: 4.34%) and a long term discount rate of 4.75% beyond 39 years (2015: 5.50% beyond 30 years).

(ii) Risk margin

The outstanding claims liability includes a risk margin that relates to the inherent uncertainty in the central estimate of the present value of expected future payments. The overall risk margin is intended to achieve a 75% probability of sufficiency in meeting the actual amount of liability to which it relates.

(iii) Inflation and indexation

ACC claims and costs are subject to inflation. Some costs are assumed to increase faster than the general rate of inflation (referred to as superimposed inflation) due to factors such as innovation in medical treatment.

(iv) Rehabilitation rate

Assumptions for rehabilitation rate were set with reference to past observed experience with allowance for expectations of the future that is believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

(v) Liability adequacy test

An unearned premium liability deficiency is recognised when the amount of the present value of expected future claim cash outflows, plus a risk margin, exceeds the unearned premium liability.

Summary of assumptions
30 June
2016
Next
Year
30 June
2016
Beyond
Next
Year
30 June
2015
Next
Year
30 June
2015
Beyond
Next
Year

Summary of assumptions

       
Average weighted term to settlement from reporting date 16 years   15 years
9 months   7 months
Weighted average risk margin 13.0%   12.9%
Probability of adequacy of liability 75.0%   75.0%
Weighted average risk margin for liability adequacy test 13.0%   12.9%
Probability of adequacy of liability to cover unearned premiums 75.0%   75.0%
Risk-free discount rate1 2.1% 2.0% to 4.8% 2.9% 2.8% to 5.5%
Inflation rates (excluding superimposed inflation):    
    Weekly compensation 2.5% 2.5% to 3.0% 2.6% 2.6% to 3.5%
    Impairment benefits 0.4% 1.5% to 2.0% 0.1% 0.1% to 2.5%
    Social rehabilitation benefits (serious and non serious injury) 1.7% 1.7% to 2.2% 1.8% 1.8% to 2.7%
    Hospital rehabilitation benefits 1.7% 1.7% to 2.2% 1.8% 1.8% to 2.7%
    Medical costs 1.7% 1.7% to 2.2% 1.8% 1.8% to 2.7%
Superimposed inflation:    
    Social rehabilitation benefits (serious injury) 5.7% 2.8% to 5.9% 2.8% 2.3% to 5.7%
    Social rehabilitation benefits (non-serious injury) 4.3% 2.0% to 4.3% 4.3% 2.0% to 4.3%
    Hospital rehabilitation benefits 5.0% 4.0% to 5.0% 5.0% 4.0% to 5.0%
    Medical costs (GPs) 4.0% 3.0% to 4.0% 3.0% 3.0% to 4.0%
    Medical costs (Radiology) 5.8% 5.0% to 5.8% 5.0% 5.0% to 5.8%
    Medical costs (Physiotherapists) 2.0% 2.0% 2.0% 2.0%
    Medical costs others (specialists) 3.3% 2.5% to 3.3% 2.5% 2.5% to 3.3%
  1. The risk-free discount rate beyond 39 years is 4.75% (2015: the rate beyond 30 years was 5.5%).

Sensitivity Analysis

The present value of the ACC claims obligation is sensitive to underlying assumptions such as the discount rate, inflation rates and expected medical costs. These assumptions are closely linked. For example, a change to the discount rate may have implications on the inflation rate used. Therefore, when calculating the present value of claims it is unlikely that an assumption will change in isolation.

If the assumptions described above were to change in isolation, this would impact the measurement of the ACC claims obligation as per the table below:

Change Impact on liability
Actual
  30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Sensitivity of assumptions

 
Average weighted term to settlement from reporting date +1 year (1,106) (902)
  -1 year 1,141 930
Risk-free discount rate +1% (5,196) (3,930)
-1% 6,982 5,212
Inflation rates (including superimposed inflation) +1% 7,118 5,370
-1% (5,380) (4,106)
Social rehabilitation benefits - superimposed inflation for non-serious injury claims +1% 835 587
  -1% (613) (446)
Social rehabilitation benefits - superimposed inflation after four years for serious injury claims +1% 3,336 2,517
  -1% (2,445) (1,860)
Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
No later than 1 year 2,321 2,137
Later than 1 year and no later than 2 years 1,672 1,578
Later than 2 years and no later than 5 years 4,350 4,184
Later than 5 years and no later than 10 years 6,514 6,411
Later than 10 years and no later than 15 years 6,054 5,836
Later than 15 years and no later than 20 years 5,783 5,619
Later than 20 years and no later than 25 years 5,591 5,567
Later than 25 years and no later than 30 years 5,370 5,519
Later than 30 years and no later than 35 years 5,122 5,456
Later than 35 years and no later than 40 years 4,825 5,300
Later than 40 years and no later than 45 years 4,451 5,038
Later than 45 years and no later than 50 years 3,979 4,639
Later than 50 years 11,795 14,656
Undiscounted outstanding claims liability 67,827 71,940

Note 23: Retirement Plan Liabilities

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
12,192 11,297 Government Superannuation Fund (GSF) 12,441 10,845
(2) (10) Other funds 1 (11)
12,190 11,287 Total retirement plan liabilities 12,442 10,834

The Government operates a defined benefit superannuation plan for qualifying employees who are members of the Government Superannuation Fund (GSF). The members' entitlements are defined in the Government Superannuation Fund Act 1956. Contributing members make regular payments to GSF and in return, on retirement, receive a defined level of income. GSF is closed to employees who were not members at 1 July 1992.

The GSF obligation has been calculated by GSF's actuary as at 30 June 2016. A Projected Unit Credit Method, based on balance-date membership data, is used for the valuation. This method requires the benefits payable from the GSF in respect of past service to be estimated and then discounted back to the valuation date.

Amounts recognised in the statement of financial position in respect of GSF are as follows:

Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Net GSF Obligation

 
Present value of defined benefit obligation 16,406 14,932
Fair value of plan assets (3,965) (4,087)
Present value of unfunded defined benefit obligation 12,441 10,845

Present value of defined benefit obligation

 
Opening defined benefit obligation 14,932 14,560
Expected current service cost 73 77
Expected unwind of discount rate 426 525
Actuarial losses/(gains) 1,846 647
Benefits paid (871) (877)
Other
Closing defined benefit obligation 16,406 14,932

Fair value of plan assets

 
Opening fair value of plan assets 4,087 3,674
Expected return on plan assets 220 216
Actuarial gains/(losses) (182) 325
Funding of benefits paid by Government 703 721
Contributions from other entities 18 22
Contributions from members 33 37
Benefits paid (871) (877)
Other (43) (31)
Closing fair value of plan assets 3,965 4,087

Amounts recognised in the statement of financial performance in respect of GSF are as follows:

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Personnel Expenses

 
Expected current service cost 73 77
Expected unwind of discount rate on GSF obligation 426 525
Expected return on plan assets (220) (216)
Contributions from members and funding employers (51) (59)
Other expenses 43 31
    Past service cost
355 272 Total included in personnel expenses 271 358

Net (Gains)/Losses on Non-Financial Instruments

 
898 Actuarial (gain)/loss recognised in the year 2,028 322
355 1,170 Total GSF expense 2,299 680

The Government expects to make a contribution of $724 million to GSF in the year ending 30 June 2017. In addition to its obligations to past and present employees, because GSF is liable for income tax, the Crown will be required to make additional contributions equivalent to the tax on future investment income.

The principal assumptions used for the purposes of the GSF actuarial valuations are as follows:

Actual
30 June
2016
%
30 June
2015
%

Summary of assumptions

 
For following year  
Discount rate 2.1% 2.9%
Expected return on plan assets 5.0% 5.5%
Expected rate of salary increases 2.5% 3.0%
Expected rate of inflation 1.5% 1.6%
Beyond next year  
Discount rates between 2 and 21 years 2.0% to 3.9% 2.8% to 5.0%
Discount rates between 22 and 29 years 3.9% to 4.3% 5.1% to 5.4%
Discount rates between 30 and 38 years 4.3% to 4.7% 5.5% to 5.5%
Discount rate from 39 years onwards 4.8% 5.5%
Expected return on plan assets 5.0% 5.5%
Expected rate of salary increases 2.5% 3.0%
Expected rate of inflation from years 2 to 12 1.5% 1.6%

Assumed inflation increases of 1.5% each year to year 11, then gradually increases, reaching 2.0% in year 38.

The defined benefit obligation increased in the year to 30 June 2016 by $1,474 million, mainly due to a decrease in the short and medium term discount rates over the year, partially offset by a reduction in the assumed rate of increase in the Consumer Price Index.

The discount rate used to present value the pension cash flows associated with this obligation has a risk-free rate based on the market yield curve of New Zealand Government Bonds. Given the short-term nature of market data on Government Bonds in New Zealand, we also assume a single long-term equilibrium risk-free interest rate of 4.75% based on macroeconomic extrapolation. Discount rates are then smoothed over a minimum of 10 years from the end of the market yield curve to that long-term rate.

Note 23: Retirement Plan Liabilities (continued)

The major categories of GSF plan assets at 30 June are as follows:

Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Equity instruments 2,227 2,561
Other debt instruments 544 589
Cash and short term investments 348 307
Property 7 7
Other 839 623
Fair value of plan assets 3,965 4,087

The expected rate of return on the plan assets of 5.0% (2015: 5.5%) has been calculated by taking the expected long-term returns from each asset class, reduced by tax (using the current rates of tax).

The actual return on plan assets for the year ended 30 June 2016 was 1.0%, or $38 million (2015: 15.0% or $542 million).

Sensitivity Analysis

The present value of the GSF obligation is sensitive to underlying assumptions such as the discount rate, inflation rates and expected salary increases. These assumptions are closely linked. For example, a change to the discount rate may have implications on the inflation rate used. Therefore, when calculating the present value of pension payments it is unlikely that an assumption will change in isolation.

If the discount rate was to change in isolation, this would impact the measurement of GSF obligation as per the table below.

The plan's assets are exposed to share price risks arising from its holding of equity instruments. Equity instruments are reported at fair value. Movements in share prices therefore directly translate into movements in the value of the share investment portfolio.

The sensitivity analysis below has been determined based on GSF's exposure to share price risks at the reporting date.

Impact on net GSF obligation
Change Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Sensitivity of assumptions

   
Discount rate (present value of the obligation) + 1% (1,771) (1,527)
- 1% 2,157 1,850
Share price (fair value of equity instruments) + 10% (223) (256)
- 10% 223 256
Expected rate of inflation + 1% 1,982 1,704
- 1% (1,668) (1,439)

Historical Analysis

Actual gains and losses comprise experience adjustments (the effects of differences between the previous actuarial assumptions and what has actually occurred in the year) and the effects of changes in actuarial assumptions on valuation date. The history of the present value of the unfunded defined benefit obligation and experience adjustments is as follows:

Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
30 June
2014
$m
30 June
2013
$m
30 June
2012
$m
Present value of defined benefit obligation 16,406 14,932 14,560 15,290 16,557
Fair value of plan assets (3,965) (4,087) (3,674) (3,382) (3,018)
Present value of unfunded defined benefit obligation 12,441 10,845 10,886 11,908 13,539
Experience adjustment - increase/(decrease) in plan assets (182) 325 212 331 (210)
Less experience adjustment - increase/(decrease) in plan liabilities 184 157 68 (90) 28
Total experience adjustments - (losses)/gains (366) 168 144 421 (238)
Changes in actuarial assumptions (1,662) (490) 433 830 (3,658)
Actuarial (losses)/gains recognised in the year (2,028) (322) 577 1,251 (3,896)

Undiscounted defined benefit obligation

The reported GSF defined benefit obligation of $16,406 million (2015: $14,932 million) represents the net present value of estimated cash flows associated with this obligation. The following table represents the timing of future undiscounted cash flows for entitlements to 30 June 2016. These estimated cash flows include the effects of assumed future inflation.

30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
No later than 1 year 916 921
Later than 1 year and no later than 2 years 902 910
Later than 2 years and no later than 5 years 2,723 2,763
Later than 5 years and no later than 10 years 4,477 4,588
Later than 10 years and no later than 15 years 4,174 4,305
Later than 15 years and no later than 20 years 3,647 3,828
Later than 20 years and no later than 25 years 2,943 3,204
Later than 25 years and no later than 30 years 2,197 2,517
Later than 30 years and no later than 35 years 1,503 1,837
Later than 35 years and no later than 40 years 931 1,219
Later than 40 years and no later than 45 years 512 722
Later than 45 years and no later than 50 years 241 366
Later than 50 years 122 203
Undiscounted defined benefit obligation 25,288 27,383

Note 24: Provisions

2016 Forecast Note Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

By type

 
3,251 3,441 Provision for employee entitlements a 3,604 3,533
821 1,303 Provision for ETS credits b 2,250 855
833 847 Provision for National Provident Fund guarantee c 918 893
Aircraft Lease Return Costs d 295 253
52 Provision for Water Infrastructure costs package (refer note 31) 75 234
1,571 1,709 Other provisions e 1,570 1,453
6,476 7,352 Total provisions 8,712 7,221

By longevity

 
3,252 3,507 Expected to be settled within one year 3,785 3,764
3,224 3,845 Expected to be outstanding for more than one year 4,927 3,457
6,476 7,352 Total provisions 8,712 7,221
For the year ended 30 June 2016 Employee
entitlements
$m
ETS
$m
NPF
guarantee
$m
Aircraft
lease
return costs
$m
Opening Provision 3,533 855 893 253
Additional Provision 1,735 163 84
Provision Utilised (1,492) (271) (67) (34)
Reversal of previous provision (172) (27)
(Gains) / Losses on NZ Units 1,503
Other Movements 119 (8)
Closing Provision 3,604 2,250 918 295
For the year ended 30 June 2015 Employee
entitlements
$m
ETS
$m
NPF
guarantee
$m
Aircraft
lease
return costs
$m
Opening Provision 3,444 521 910 173
Additional Provision 1,948 133 -   63
Provision Utilised (1,705)  (138)  (75)  (29)
Reversal of previous provision (154) (52)
(Gains) / Losses on NZ Units 366
Other Movements  (27) 110 46
Closing Provision 3,533 855 893 253

a) Employee entitlements

The provision for employee entitlements represents annual leave, accrued long service leave, retiring leave, and sick leave entitlements accrued by employees. Probability assumptions about continued future service affecting entitlements accrued as at reporting date have been made using previous employment data. For entitlements that vest over a period exceeding one year discount rates applied rise from 2.12% next year to 4.75% in later years.

b) Emissions Trading Scheme

The Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) was established to encourage a reduction in New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions. The carbon price used to calculate the ETS provision at 30 June 2016 is $NZ17.75 (2015: $NZ6.80).

The ETS provision represents the tradeable NZ units outstanding, that will be accepted by the government as emitters honour the emissions obligations under the ETS.

The carbon price has been determined by the Ministry for the Environment based on the quoted NZU spot price at the end of the reporting date as published by OM Financial Limited on their CommTrade Carbon website.

c) National Provident Fund guarantee

The Government has guaranteed superannuation schemes managed by the National Provident Fund (NPF). Included in the provision is the NPF's DBP Annuitants Scheme unfunded liability position of $918 million (2015: $893 million), represented by a gross estimated pension obligation of $955 million (2015: $929 million) with net investment assets valued at $37 million (2015: $36 million).

d) Aircraft lease return costs

Where a commitment exists to maintain aircraft held under operating lease arrangements, a provision is made during the lease term for the lease return obligations specified within those lease arrangements. The provision is based upon historical experience, manufacturers' advice and, where appropriate, contractual obligations.

e) Other provisions

Other provisions are recognised where there is a present obligation, a result of a past event, where it is probable that this obligation will be settled. Other provisions include rehabilitation and restoration provisions.

Note 25: Minority Interests

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Net Worth Attributable to Minority Interests

 
5,181 5,782 Opening minority interest 5,782 5,211
473 565 Operating balance attributable to minority interests 436 545
Increase in minority interest from Government share offers 41
(438) (440) Transactions with minority interests (404) (319)
Movement in reserves attributable to minority interests 367 246
7 (152) Other movements (26) 58
5,223 5,755 Closing minority interest 6,155 5,782

Consisting of interests in:

 
Mighty River Power (now Mercury NZ Limited) 1,513 1,537
Meridian Energy 2,301 2,137
  Genesis Energy 927 826
Air New Zealand 1,224 1,125
Other 190 157
Closing minority interest 6,155 5,782

Minority share of Operating Balance

 
Mighty River Power (now Mercury NZ Limited) 73 22
Meridian Energy 84 111
Genesis Energy 41 66
Air New Zealand 252 379
Other (14) (33)
Operating balance attributable to minority interests 436 545

Transactions with minority interests include dividend payments and dividend reinvestments.

Other minority interests consists of interests in Crown Fibre Holdings Limited (investments in local fibre companies) and the New Zealand Post Group (capital notes issued by the Kiwibank group).

Note 26: Capital Objectives and Fiscal Policy

The Government's fiscal policy is pursued in accordance with the principles of responsible fiscal management set out in the Public Finance Act 1989:

  • reducing total debt to prudent levels so as to provide a buffer against factors that may impact adversely on the level of total debt in the future by ensuring that, until those levels have been achieved, total operating expenses in each financial year are less than total operating revenues in the same financial year
  • once prudent levels of total debt have been achieved, maintaining those levels by ensuring that, on average, over a reasonable period of time, total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues
  • achieving and maintaining levels of total net worth that provide a buffer against factors that may impact adversely on total net worth in the future
  • managing prudently the fiscal risks facing the Government
  • when formulating revenue strategy, having regard to efficiency and fairness, including predictability and stability of tax rates
  • when formulating fiscal strategy, having regard to its interaction with the interaction between fiscal policy and monetary policy
  • when formulating fiscal strategy, having regard to its likely impact on present and future generations, and
  • ensuring that the Crown's resources are managed effectively and efficiently.

Consistent with these principles, the Government seeks to strengthen its fiscal position to help manage future spending demands, particularly those arising from an ageing population, by maintaining debt at prudent levels and accumulating assets held by the New Zealand Superannuation Fund.

Further information on the Government's fiscal strategy can be found in the Fiscal Strategy Report published with the Government's budget.

The Government's fiscal strategy is expressed through its long term objectives and short term intentions for fiscal policy.

Long Term Fiscal Objectives - Fiscal Strategy Report 2016[6]

Debt

Manage total debt at prudent levels. Manage net debt within a range of 0% to 20% of GDP.

Operating balance

Deliver operating balances sufficient to meet the Government's net capital requirements, including contributions to the NZS Fund, and ensure consistency with the debt objective.

Operating expenses

Control the growth in government spending so core Crown expenses are below 30% of GDP.

Notes

  • [6]The long-term fiscal objectives are stated in the Fiscal Strategy Report 2016.

Note 26: Capital Objectives and Fiscal Policy (continued)

Operating revenues

Ensure sufficient operating revenue to meet the operating balance objective.

Net worth

Ensure net worth remains at a level sufficient to act as a buffer to economic shocks. Consistent with the debt and operating balance objectives, the Crown will build up net worth ahead of the full fiscal impact of the demographic change expected in the mid-2020s.

Short Term Fiscal Intentions
Fiscal Strategy Report 2015 Fiscal Strategy Report 2016 Fiscal Position 2016[7]

Debt

Gross sovereign-issued debt (including Reserve Bank settlement cash and Reserve Bank bills) is forecast to be 31.4% of GDP in 2018/19.

Net core Crown debt (excluding NZS Fund and advances) is forecast to be 22.9% in 2018/19, 20.9% of GDP in 2019/20 and 19.7% of GDP in 2020/21.

Debt

Our intention is to reduce net debt to around 20% of GDP in 2020.

Gross sovereign-issued debt (including Reserve Bank settlement cash and Reserve Bank bills) is forecast to be 30.4% of GDP in 2019/20.

Net core Crown debt (excluding NZS Fund and advances) is forecast to be 23.1% in 2018/19, 20.8% of GDP in 2019/20 and projected to be 19.3% of GDP in 2020/21.

Debt

Gross sovereign-issued debt (including Reserve Bank settlement cash and Reserve Bank bills) at 30 June 2016 was 37.1% of GDP (2015: 38.6%).

Net core Crown debt (excluding NZS Fund and advances) at 30 June 2016 was 24.6% of GDP (2015: 25.1%).

Operating balance

Our intention is to return the operating balance (before gains and losses) to surplus as soon as practical and no later than 2014/15, subject to any significant shocks.

The operating balance (before gains and losses) is forecast to be -0.3% of GDP in 2014/15, 0.1% of GDP in 2015/16 and 1.3% of GDP in 2018/19. This is consistent with the long-term objective for the operating balance.

The operating balance is forecast to be 2.3% of GDP in 2018/19.

Operating balance

Our intention is to maintain rising operating balance (before gains and losses) surpluses so that net core Crown debt begins to reduce in dollar terms (subject to any significant shocks to the economy).

The operating balance (before gains and losses) is forecast to be 0.3% of GDP in 2015/16, 0.3% of GDP in 2016/17 and 2.2% of GDP in 2019/20. This is consistent with the long-term objective for the operating balance.

The operating balance is forecast to be 3.2% of GDP in 2019/20.

Operating balance

The operating balance (before gains and losses) for the year ended 30 June 2016 was a surplus of 0.7% of GDP (2015: 0.2%).

The operating deficit for the year ended 30 June 2016 was (2.1%) of GDP (2015: surplus of 2.4%).

Expenses

Our intention is to support a return to fiscal surplus by restraining the growth in core Crown expenses - so that they are reduced to around 30% of GDP by 2015/16.

Core Crown expenses are forecast to be 29.0% of GDP in 2018/19.

Total Crown expenses are forecast to be 37.7% of GDP in 2018/19.

This assumes a new operating allowance of $1 billion in Budget 2016 and $2.5 billion in Budget 2017.

Expenses

Our intention is to support fiscal surpluses by restraining the growth in core Crown expenses and managing these to below 30% of GDP.

Core Crown expenses are forecast to fall from 29.7% of GDP in 2015/16 to 28.3% of GDP in 2019/20.

Total Crown expenses are forecast to be 36.4% of GDP in 2019/20.

This assumes a new operating allowance of $1.5 billion in Budget 2017 and for the remainder of the forecast period, growing at 2% thereafter.

Expenses

Core Crown expenses for the year ended 30 June 2016 were 29.4% GDP (2015: 30.0%).

Total Crown expenses for the year ended 30 June 2016 were 38.1% of GDP (2015: 38.8%).

Revenues

Total Crown revenues are forecast to be 39.2% of GDP in 2018/19.

Core Crown revenues are forecast to be 30.6% of GDP in 2018/19.

Core Crown tax revenues are forecast to be 28.2% of GDP in 2018/19.

Revenues

Our intention is to support fiscal surpluses by growing revenue in dollar terms, although maintaining it at broadly the same proportion of GDP.

Total Crown revenues are forecast to be 38.8% of GDP in 2019/20.

Core Crown revenues are forecast to be 30.6% of GDP in 2019/20.

Core Crown tax revenues are forecast to be 28.2% of GDP in 2019/20.

Revenues

Total Crown revenues for the year ended 30 June 2016 were 39.0% of GDP (2015: 39.1%).

Core Crown revenues for the year ended 30 June 2016 were 30.2% of GDP (2015: 29.9%).

Core Crown tax revenues for the year ended 30 June 2016 were 28.0% of GDP (2015: 27.6%).

Net worth

Total Crown net worth is forecast to be 34.6% of GDP in 2018/19.

Total net worth attributable to the Crown is forecast to be 32.8% of GDP in 2018/19.

Net worth

Our intention is to strengthen the Crown's financial positions as a buffer against future adverse shocks.

Total net worth attributable to the Crown is forecast to be 36.4% of GDP in 2019/20.

Total Crown net worth is forecast to be 38.4% of GDP in 2019/20.

Net worth

Total net worth attributable to the Crown as at 30 June 2016 was 35.5% of GDP (2015: 35.8%).

Total Crown net worth as at 30 June 2016 was 37.9% of GDP (2015: 38.2%).

Notes

  • [7]GDP for the year ended 30 June 2016 was $251,760 million (2015: $241,597 million revised).

Note 27: Commitments

  Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Capital Commitments

   
State highways1 5,398 4,060
Aircraft (excluding military) 2,210 2,517
Specialist military equipment 235 420
Land and buildings 2,200 1,122
Other property, plant and equipment 368 441
Other capital commitments 246 694
Tertiary Education Institutions 533 480
Total capital commitments 11,190 9,734

Operating Lease Commitments

   
Non-cancellable accommodation leases 3,197 3,088
Other non-cancellable leases 2,411 2,291
Tertiary Education Institutions 730 540
Total operating lease commitments 6,338 5,919
Total commitments 17,528 15,653

By source

   
Core Crown 5,102 4,453
Crown entities 8,392 7,231
State-owned Enterprises 4,826 4,887
Inter-segment eliminations (792) (918)
Total commitments  17,528 15,653

By Term

   

Capital Commitments

   
One year or less 4,973 4,284
From one year to two years 2,334 2,309
From two to five years 2,416 2,967
Over five years 1,467 174
Total capital commitments  11,190 9,734

Operating Lease Commitments

   
One year or less 1,096 1,131
From one year to two years 884 1,023
From two to five years 1,765 1,691
Over five years 2,593 2,074
Total operating lease commitments  6,338 5,919
Total commitments 17,528 15,653
  1. The state highways capital commitment has increased compared to the previous year to include the Transmission Gulley project ($1.1 billion).

Note 28: Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Contingent liabilities are:

  • costs that the Crown will have to face if a particular event occurs, or
  • present liabilities that are unable to be measured with sufficient reliability to be recorded in the financial statements (unquantifiable liabilities).

Typically, contingent liabilities consist of guarantees and indemnities, legal disputes and claims, and uncalled capital. The contingent liabilities facing the Crown are a mixture of operating and capital risks, and they can vary greatly in magnitude and likelihood of realisation.

In general, if a contingent liability was realised, or the amount becomes sufficiently reliable to record as a liability, it would reduce the operating balance and net worth and increase net core Crown debt. However, in the case of some contingencies (eg, uncalled capital), the negative impact would be restricted to net core Crown debt.

Contingent assets are possible assets that have arisen from past events but the amount of the asset, or whether it will eventuate, will not be confirmed until a particular event occurs.

Contingent liabilities and contingent assets involving amounts of over $20 million are separately disclosed. Any quantifiable contingencies less than $20 million are included in the “other quantifiable” total. Some contingencies of the Crown are not able to be quantified; these unquantifiable contingent liabilities and contingent assets are disclosed as at 30 June 2016 where they are expected to be material but not remote. Where there is an obligation under New Zealand GAAP, amounts have been recognised in the financial statements.

Contingent liabilities

  Note Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Quantifiable Contingent Liabilities

     
Uncalled capital a 7,910 7,337
Guarantees and indemnities b 288 310
Legal proceedings and disputes c 221 247
Other contingent liabilities d 314 379
Total quantifiable contingent liabilities 8,733 8,273

By source

     
Core Crown   8,593 8,025
Crown entities   40 30
State-owned enterprises   100 218
Total quantifiable contingent liabilities 8,733 8,273

Note 28: Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets (continued)

a)  Uncalled capital

As part of the Crown's commitment to a multilateral approach to ensure global financial and economic stability, New Zealand, as a member country of these organisations, contributes capital by subscribing to shares in certain institutions. The capital (when called) is typically used to raise additional funding for loans to member countries, or in the case of the quota contributions to directly finance lending to members. For New Zealand and other donor countries, capital contributions comprise both “paid-in” capital and “callable capital or promissory notes”.

  Note Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Asian Development Bank i 3,051 3,193
International Monetary Fund - promissory notes ii 2,205 1,337
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development iii 1,558 1,625
International Monetary Fund - arrangements to borrow iv 559 1,164
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank v 519
Other uncalled capital   18 18
Total uncalled capital 7,910 7,337

i)  Asian Development Bank (ADB)

New Zealand was a founding-regional member of the ADB, their aim is to accelerate economic development in developing countries in Asia and the South Pacific. New Zealand is a regional member but as a donor is not entitled to borrow from the Bank. Accordingly, New Zealand is in a similar position to a non-regional member, and contributes to the ADB's resources only as required by ADB.

ii)  IMF Promissory Notes

New Zealand's subscription to the IMF is partly paid in cash and partly in promissory notes (being uncalled capital). The respective levels of called and uncalled capital change when calls are made by the IMF under the Financial Transactions plan to provide loan packages to borrowing countries. Even though promissory notes are technically “at call”, they are treated as contingent liabilities, as there are significant restrictions on the actual ability to call them, and there is no realistic estimate of either the amount or the timeframe of any call. The increase from last year follows an increase in the Securities Account with the IMF (as a result of the 14th Quota increase) as well as foreign exchange movements. The increase in promissory notes is somewhat offset by a decrease in the IMF arrangements to borrow (see iv below).

iii)  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

The IBRD is the main lending organisation of the World Bank Group. New Zealand, along with 188 other countries, is a member country and shareholder in the World Bank Group. The percentage of ownership is determined by the size of the economy and the amount of capital contributed to support the Bank's borrowing activities among international capital markets.

iv)  IMF arrangements to borrow

The Crown has agreed to make funds available to the IMF to support international financial systems in the event of a significant crisis. This is a contingent liability as it will depend upon uncertain trigger events occurring and the IMF calling the funds. Following the increase in the IMF promissory notes above, the arrangements to borrow have significantly reduced from the previous year.

v)  Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

New Zealand was a founding-regional member of the AIIB. AIIB is a Chinese initiated multilateral investment bank aimed at addressing the significant gap in infrastructure investment across Asia. The Crown has agreed to make funds available to the AIIB, which will depend upon uncertain trigger events and AIIB calling the funds.

Southern Response Earthquake Services Ltd

In addition to the uncalled capital above, the Crown Support Deed agreed with Southern Response Earthquake Services Ltd includes:

  • a $500 million preference share facility under the Crown's agreement dated 5 April 2012. This facility has been fully called and paid as at 30 June 2016, and
  • $500 million of uncalled ordinary shares under an amended Crown Support Deed dated 30 January 2013. This capital facility has since been extended with an additional $250 million during 2015/16.

As at 30 June 2016, $555 million has been called and $43 million paid under the uncalled ordinary capital facility. There is also a possibility that the remaining $195 million will be called due to significant complexities that exist in settling Christchurch earthquake claims. The extent to which the subscription is called and paid depends on the ultimate cost of settling earthquake claims, which continues to be subject to significant uncertainty.

These arrangements are within the Government Reporting Entity and do not impact the consolidated results of the Government. However, movements in these capital facilities will impact on net core Crown debt.

b)  Guarantees and indemnities

Guarantees are legally binding promises made by the Crown to assume responsibility for a debt, or performance of an obligation of another party, should that party default. Guarantees generally relate to the payment of money but may require the performance of services.

Indemnities are legally binding promises where the Crown undertakes to accept the risk of loss or damage that another party may suffer and to hold the other party harmless against loss caused by a specific stated event.

  Note Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
New Zealand Export Credit Office guarantees i 211 177
Air New Zealand letters of credit and performance bonds ii 33 58
Other guarantees and indemnities   44 75
Total guarantees and indemnities 288 310

i)  New Zealand Export Credit Office guarantees

The New Zealand Export Credit Office (NZECO) provides a range of guarantee products to assist New Zealand exporters manage risk and capitalise on trade opportunities around the globe. The obligations to third parties are guaranteed by the Crown and are intended to extend the capacity of facilities in the private sector.

ii)  Air New Zealand letters of credit and performance bonds

The letters of credit are primarily given in relation to passenger charges and airport landing charges. Guarantees are also provided in respect of credit card obligations. The performance bonds are primarily given in respect of engineering contracts.

c)  Legal proceedings and disputes

The amounts under quantifiable contingent liabilities for legal proceedings and disputes are shown exclusive of any interest and costs that may be claimed if these cases were decided against the Crown. The amount shown is the amount claimed and thus the maximum potential cost; it does not represent either an admission that the claim is valid or an estimation of the possible amount of any award against the Crown.

  Note Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Legal proceedings i 172 148
Other legal proceedings and disputes   49 99
Total legal proceedings and disputes 221 247

i) Legal proceedings 

When a taxpayer disagrees with an assessment issued following the dispute process, the taxpayer may challenge that decision by filing proceedings with the Taxation Review Authority or the High Court. This contingent liability represents the outstanding debt of tax assessments raised against which an objection has been lodged and legal action is proceeding.

d)  Other quantifiable contingent liabilities

  Note Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Unclaimed monies i 133 120
Air New Zealand partnership ii 68 76
Education legal dispute iii 26
Other contingent liabilities   88 183
Total other contingent liabilities 314 379

i) Unclaimed monies

Under the Unclaimed Money Act 1971, entities (eg, financial institutions, insurance companies) hand over money not claimed after six years to Inland Revenue. The funds are repaid to the entitled owner on proof of identification.

ii) Air New Zealand partnership

The Air New Zealand Group has a partnership agreement in relation to the Christchurch Engineering Centre (CEC), holding a 49% interest. By the nature of the agreement, joint and several liabilities exist between the two parties; the contingent liability represents Air New Zealand's share of CEC's liabilities.

iii) Education legal dispute

A breach of contract claim has taken by the New Zealand Educational Institute on behalf of support staff in schools. The NZEI claim that the collective agreement requires that the support workers' pay for 2016 should be based on the higher equivalent rate for 26 pay periods for each of the 2016 pay periods of which there are 27.

Note 28: Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets (continued)

Unquantifiable contingent liabilities

This part of the statement provides details of those contingent liabilities of the Crown which are not quantified, excluding those that are considered remote, reported by the following categories:

  1. Indemnities

  2. Legal claims and proceedings

  3. Other contingent liabilities

a) Indemnities

Indemnities are legally binding promises where the Crown undertakes to accept the risk of loss or damage that another party may suffer and to hold the other party harmless against loss caused by a specific stated event.

A number of these indemnities are provided to organisations within the Crown's control. If these indemnities were to crystallise, the Crown would compensate the individual entity for the loss and there would likely be an adverse impact on core Crown expenses and core Crown net debt.

Party indemnified Instrument of indemnification Actions indemnified
Air New Zealand Deed of indemnity issued 24 September 2001. Claims arising from acts of war and terrorism that cannot be met from insurance, up to a limit of US$1 billion in respect of any one claim.
Contact Energy Limited The Crown and Contact Energy signed a number of documents to settle in full Contact's outstanding land rights and geothermal asset rights at Wairakei.  The documents contained two reciprocal indemnities between the Crown and Contact to address the risk of certain losses to the respective parties' assets arising from the negligence or fault of the other party. 
Earthquake Commission (EQC) Section 16 of the Earthquake Commission Act 1993. As set out in the Earthquake Commission Act 1993, the Crown shall fund any deficiency in EQC's assets to cover its financial liabilities on such terms and conditions that the Minister of Finance determines. 
Genesis Energy Limited Deed between Genesis Power Limited and the Crown. The agreement sees the Crown compensate Genesis in the event that Genesis has less gas than it requires for the long-term supply of gas to cover Huntly Power station's minimum needs.
Genesis acquisition of Tekapo A & B power stations. Indemnity against any damage to bed of lakes and rivers subject to operating easements. 
Housing New Zealand Limited (HNZL) The Crown has provided a warranty in respect of title to the assets transferred to HNZL

The Crown indemnified HNZL against:

  • any breach of the warranty provided, and
  • any third-party claims that are a result of acts or omissions prior to 1 November 1992.

The Crown also indemnified the directors and officers of HNZL against any liability consequent upon the assets not complying with statutory requirements, provided it is taking steps to rectify any non-compliance.

New Zealand Rail Corporation The Minister of Finance signed the indemnity on 1 September 2004 The directors of NZ Railways Corporation against all liabilities in connection with the Corporation taking ownership and/or responsibility for the national rail network and any associated assets and liabilities.
Section 10 of the Finance Act 1990 Guarantees all loan and swap obligations of the New Zealand Railways Corporation.
Justices of the Peace, Community Magistrates and Disputes Tribunal Referee

Section 11CE of the District Courts Act 1947 and Section 4F of the Justices of the Peace Act 1957

Section 58 of the Disputes Tribunal Act 1988

Damages or costs awarded against them as a result of them exceeding their jurisdiction, provided a High Court Judge certifies that they have exceeded their jurisdiction in good faith and ought to be indemnified.
Maui Contracts Contracts in respect of which the Crown purchases gas from Maui Mining companies and sells gas downstream to Contact Energy Limited, Vector Gas Limited and Methanex Waitara Valley Limited The contracts provide for invoices to be re-opened in certain circumstances within two years of their issue date as a result of revisions to indices.  These revisions may result in the Crown refunding monies or receiving monies from those parties.
Maui Partners Confidentiality agreements with the Maui Partners in relation to the provision of gas reserves information

Any losses arising from a breach of the deed.

 

New Zealand Aluminium Smelter and Comalco The Minister of Finance signed indemnities in November 2003 and February 2004 in respect of aluminium dross currently stored at another site in Invercargill The indemnity relates to costs incurred in removing the dross and disposing of it at another site if required to do so by an appropriate authority.
New Zealand Local Authorities

Section 39 of the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002.

Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan

The Guide to the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan (‘the Guide') states that with the approval of the Minister, the Government will reimburse local authorities, in whole or in part, for certain types of response and recovery costs incurred as a result of a local or national emergency.  The Guide is approved and issued by the Director of Civil Defence Emergency Management.

Persons exercising investigating powers

Section 63 of the Corporations (Investigation and Management) Act 1989 Indemnifies the Financial Markets Authority (formerly Securities Commission), the Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Companies, members of advising committees within the Act, every statutory manager of a corporation, and persons appointed pursuant to sections 17 to 19 of the Act, in the exercise of investigating powers, unless the power has been exercised in bad faith.
Synfuels-Waitara Outfall Indemnity 1990 sale of the Synfuels plant and operations to New Zealand Liquid Fuels Investment Limited (NZLFI) The Crown transferred to NZLFI the benefit and obligation of a Deed of Indemnity between the Crown and Borthwick-CWS Limited (and subsequent owners) in respect of the Waitara effluent transfer line which was laid across the Waitara meat processing plant site.  The Crown has the benefit of a counter indemnity from NZLFI which has since been transferred to Methanex Motunui Limited.
Westpac New Zealand Limited The Domestic Transaction Banking Services Master

The Crown Transactional Banking Services Agreement with Westpac New Zealand Limited dated 24 September 2015. The Crown has indemnified Westpac New Zealand Limited:

  • for all amounts paid by Westpac New Zealand under letters of credit issued on behalf of the Crown, and
  • against certain cost, damages and losses to third parties resulting from:
    • unauthorised, forged or fraudulent payment instructions
    • unauthorised or incorrect direct debit instructions, or
    • cheques mistakenly drawn in favour of a third party rather than drawn in favour of the Crown.

Note 28: Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets (continued)

b)  Legal claims and proceedings

There are numerous legal actions that have been brought against the Crown. However, in the majority of these actions it is considered a remote possibility that the Crown would lose the case, or if the Crown were to lose it would be unlikely to have greater than a $20 million impact. Based on these factors, not all legal actions are individually disclosed. The claims that are disclosed individually, while they cannot be quantified, have the potential to exceed $20 million in costs.

i)  Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) litigations 

Litigation involving ACC arises almost exclusively from challenges to operational decisions made by ACC through the statutory review and appeal process. No accrual has been made for contingent liabilities which could arise, as these disputes are issue-based and ACC's active management of litigation means that it will be either settling or defending, depending on the merits of the issue in dispute. ACC's Board believes the resolution of outstanding appeals will not have any material effect on the financial statements of ACC.

ii)  Air New Zealand litigation

Air New Zealand is defending a class action in the United States, in which it is alleged that Air New Zealand together with other airlines acted anti-competitively in respect of fares and surcharges on trans-Pacific routes.

Allegations of anti-competitive conduct in the air cargo business in Hong Kong and Singapore were the subject of proceedings by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC). Following a defended hearing, the Federal Court released its decision in October 2014, finding in favour of Air New Zealand. The ACCC has appealed the decision and the appeal was heard in August 2015 finding in favour of the ACCC. Application has been made to the High Court of Australia for leave to appeal the latest decision. In the event that a Court determined that Air New Zealand had breached competition laws, the Group would have potential liability for damages or (in Australia) pecuniary penalties. No other significant contingent liability claims are outstanding at balance date.

iii)  Kiwibank

In June 2013, a group called Fair Play on Fees announced plans for a representative action against banks in New Zealand in relation to certain default fees charged to New Zealand customers. In November 2013, the group issued proceedings against Kiwibank. The potential outcome of the proceedings cannot be determined with any certainty at this stage.

iv)  Ministry for Primary Industries - Kiwifruit vine disease

In November 2014, 42 growers and post-harvest operators filed a claim against the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) alleging MPI is legally liable for damages they have suffered from a biosecurity incursion of the kiwifruit vine disease, Psa-V, in New Zealand. There are now approximately 178 grower claims included in the proceeding and one post-harvest operator claim. The plaintiffs have not quantified their losses, but publicly claim it is in the vicinity of $380 million (and cite total industry losses of $885 million). Although the plaintiffs have now provided some of the types of loss for which they are claiming, the loss has not been quantified for each claim, so it is still not possible to provide a more accurate assessment of the contingent liability.

v)  Treaty of Waitangi claims

Under the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, any Māori may lodge certain claims relating to land or actions counter to the principles of the Treaty with the Waitangi Tribunal. Where the Tribunal finds a claim is well founded, it may recommend to the Crown that action be taken to compensate those affected. The Tribunal can make recommendations that are binding on the Crown with respect to land which has been transferred by the Crown to an SOE or tertiary institution, or is subject to the Crown Forest Assets Act 1989.

On occasion, Māori claimants pursue the resolution of particular claims against the Crown through higher courts. Failure to successfully defend such actions may result in a liability for historical Treaty grievances in excess of that currently anticipated.

c) Other contingent liabilities

i)  Criminal Proceeds (Recovery) Act

The Ministry of Justice is responsible for administering the Criminal Proceeds (Recovery) Act 2009. The Act requires the Crown to give an undertaking as to damages or costs in relation to asset restraining orders. In the event that the Crown is found liable, payment may be required.

ii)  Environmental liabilities

Under common law and various statutes, the Crown may have responsibility to remedy adverse effects on the environment arising from Crown activities. Entities managing significant Crown properties have implemented systems to identify, monitor and assess potential contaminated sites.

In accordance with PBE IPSAS 19: Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets any contaminated sites for which costs can be reliably measured have been included in the statement of financial position as provisions.

iii)  Treaty of Waitangi claims - settlement relativity payments

The Deeds of Settlement negotiated with Waikato-Tainui, and Ngāi Tahu include a relativity mechanism. The mechanism provides that, where the total redress amount for all historical Treaty settlements exceeds $1 billion in 1994 present-value terms, the Crown is liable to make payments to maintain the real value of Waikato-Tainui’s, and Ngāi Tahu’s settlements as a proportion of all Treaty settlements. The agreed relativity proportions are 17 percent for Waikato-Tainui and approximately 16 percent for Ngāi Tahu.

The relativity mechanism has now been triggered, and in future years, additional costs are likely to be incurred in accordance with the relativity mechanism as Treaty settlements are reached. However, no value can be placed on these at this point in time, as there is uncertainty as to when each negotiation will settle, and the value of any settlement when reached. There is also uncertainty on how various disputes concerning the interpretation of the mechanism will be resolved.

iv)  Holidays Act and other relevant legislation

A number of entities have commenced a review of payroll calculations over the last six years in order to ensure compliance with the Holidays Act and other relevant legislation. Where possible, provision has been made in these financial statements for obligations arising from that review. To the extent that an obligation cannot reasonably be quantified at 30 June 2016, a contingent liability exists.

Contingent assets

  Note Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Contingent assets

     
Tax disputes i 22 103
Suspensory loans issued to integrated schools ii 20 25
Transpower iii 21 75
Other contingent assets   10 35
Total contingent assets   73 238

By source

     
Core Crown   51 160
Crown entities   1 3
State-owned enterprises   21 75
Total quantifiable contingent assets   73 238

i) Tax disputes

A contingent asset is recognised when the Inland Revenue has advised a taxpayer of a proposed adjustment to their tax assessment. The taxpayer has the right to dispute this adjustment and a disputes resolution process can be entered into. The contingent asset is based on the likely cash collectable from the disputes process based on experience and similar prior cases, net of losses carried forward.

ii) Suspensory loans to Schools

These loans were issued by the Ministry of Education to integrated schools; however, loan repayments were not due to begin until certain dates in the future. A contingent asset is recorded at the estimated value of payments until the point that the loans are called to be repaid.

iii) Transpower New Zealand Limited

Transpower operates its revenue setting methodology within an economic value (EV) framework that analyses economic gains and losses between those attributable to shareholders and those attributable to customers. Under Commerce Commission regulations, Transpower is required to pass onto or claim from customers over time the economic value of the gains or losses. Transpower's contingent asset includes the provisional balance from the EV accounts at 30 June 2016. These figures will not be finalised until October 2016.

Note 29: Financial Instruments

The Government has devolved responsibility for the financial management of its financial portfolios to its sub-entities such as the Treasury (NZDMO), Reserve Bank, New Zealand Superannuation Fund, Inland Revenue and ACC. The financial management objectives of each of these portfolios are influenced by the purpose and associated governance framework for which the portfolio is held. The purposes of a portfolio may cover:

  • Social policy purposes. Primarily held to achieve social policy objectives. A large portion of the financial instruments for social policy purposes relates to student loans to support tertiary education policy. The associated risk for the Student Loan portfolio is that borrowers will default on their obligation.
  • Investment purposes. Primarily held for the purpose of generating returns to assist in funding long-term obligations. The main investment portfolios are managed by ACC and the NZ Superannuation Fund. Associated risks include performance of the New Zealand and global markets.
  • Funding purposes. Primarily financial assets and liabilities are held to finance the Government's borrowing requirements and provide funds to Government entities. Examples include Government bonds and Treasury bills. Financing activity exposes the Government to financial risks from interest rates and global demand for New Zealand Government bonds.
  • Central bank purposes. Primarily held for the Reserve Bank's foreign reserve management and market operations. The main financial risks to which the Reserve Bank is exposed includes foreign exchange risks, liquidity risks and financial stability risks.
  • Commercial purposes. Primarily held for by entities that operate on a commercial basis, who will hold financial instruments arising from their normal business activity. The main examples are State owned enterprises (including the mixed ownership model companies). Associated risks include interest rates risks, foreign exchange risks and price risks.

These purposes are not mutually exclusive, with portfolios typically established for, or arising from, a public policy objective, such as pre-funding future superannuation expenses, but in doing so are managed to maximise economic returns consistent with the policy objective.

Reporting to Ministers on these portfolios is done on a portfolio-by-portfolio basis. Detailed risk management policy disclosure of Government reporting entities can be found in an individual entity’s Annual Report.

The institutional frameworks and policy objectives of these portfolios are reviewed periodically. Otherwise, reporting on the consolidated financial management and performance of these portfolios is done in the context of the interim and annual Financial Statements of the Government and the forecasts reported in the Half-Year and Budget Economic and Fiscal Updates.

Details of the significant accounting policies and methods adopted including the criteria for recognition, the basis of measurement and the basis on which revenue and expenses are recognised, in respect of each class of financial asset and financial liability, are disclosed in note 33 to the financial statements.

This note provides the following details of the Crown's financial instruments:

  • Analysis of financial assets and financial liabilities
  • Fair value measurement
  • Derivative disclosures
  • Risk management, and
  • Sensitivity analysis.

Analysis of financial assets and financial liabilities

Financial instruments are measured at either fair value or amortised cost. Financial instruments measured at fair value are further classified into three designations; available for sale, held for trading and fair value through the operating balance. Changes in the value of an instrument may be reported in the statement of financial performance or directly in other comprehensive revenue and expense depending on its designation.

Financial assets
Note Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

By class

 
Cash and cash equivalents 15,617 11,982
Reinsurance, trade and other receivables 14 4,342 5,070
Long-term deposits 15 4,791 5,214
Derivatives in gain 15 5,888 3,015
Marketable securities 15 40,822 43,770
IMF financial assets 15 1,897 2,299
Share investments 16 24,217 25,408
Kiwibank loans 17 16,689 15,598
Student loans 17 8,982 8,864
Other advances 17 2,563 2,035
Total financial assets 125,808 123,255

By valuation methodology

 
Loans and receivables at amortised cost 54,015 50,064
Fair value  
     Available for sale 747 822
     Held for trading 5,948 3,090
     Fair value through the operating balance 65,098 69,279
Total financial assets at fair value 71,793 73,191
Total financial assets 125,808 123,255

As at 30 June 2016, the carrying value of financial assets that had been pledged as collateral was $2,416 million (2015: $3,660 million). These transactions are conducted under terms that are usual and normal to standard securities borrowing. The increase in collateral pledged is largely as a result of securities pledged as collateral by Reserve Bank. For more information refer to the individual entity's annual report.

Financial liabilities
Note Actual
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

By class

 
Issued currency 5,715 5,336
Accounts payable 20 7,508 8,110
Borrowings: 21  
     Government bonds 65,046 58,743
     Kiwibank customer deposits 14,113 13,006
     Settlement deposits with Reserve Bank 6,878 7,931
     Derivatives in loss 4,577 6,261
     Treasury bills 3,799 6,734
     Finance lease liabilities 1,631 1,788
     Government retail stock 201 188
     Other borrowings 17,711 17,929
Total borrowings 113,956 112,580
Total financial liabilities 127,179 126,026

By valuation methodology

 
Amortised cost (loans and receivables) 114,887 111,606
Fair value  
     Held for trading 4,577 6,261
     Fair value through the operating balance 7,715 8,159
Total financial liabilities at fair value 12,292 14,420
Total financial liabilities 127,179 126,026

Note 29: Financial Instruments (continued)

Fair Value Measurement

The following tables detail the basis for the valuation of financial assets and financial liabilities measured at fair value. This includes financial assets and financial liabilities that are available for sale, held for trading, or fair value through the operating balance. Fair value is the amount for an asset could be exchanged or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm's length transaction. Fair value may be determined using different methods depending on the type of asset or liability. Fair values are determined according to the following hierarchy:

  • Quoted Market Price - Financial instruments with quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets (level 1).
  • Valuation Technique Using Observable Inputs - Financial instruments with quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets or quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in inactive markets, and financial instruments valued using models where all significant inputs are observable (level 2).
  • Valuation Technique with Significant Non-observable Inputs - Financial instruments valued using models where one or more significant inputs are not observable (level 3).
Actual
As at
30 June
2016
$m
As at
30 June
2015
$m

Financial assets

 
Quoted market price 30,447 32,919
Observable market inputs 37,882 36,514
Significant non-observable inputs 3,464 3,758
Total financial assets at fair value 71,793 73,191

Financial liabilities

 
Quoted market price 2,591 1,819
Observable market inputs 9,552 12,502
Significant non-observable inputs 149 99
Total financial liabilities at fair value 12,292 14,420
Net financial instruments at fair value 59,501 58,771

Significant non-observable inputs

The following table details movements in the fair value of financial instruments measured using significant non-observable inputs.

Actual
As at
30 June
2016
$m
As at
30 June
2015
$m
Financial assets 3,464 3,758
Financial liabilities 149 99
Net financial instruments 3,315 3,659

Opening balance

3,659 3,037
Total gains/(losses) recognised in the statement of financial performance (181) 394
Total gains/(losses) recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense (18) (14)
Purchases 438 796
Sales (158) (346)
Issues 1 186
Settlements (423) (253)
Transfers into and out of non-observable inputs (3) (141)
Closing balance 3,315 3,659

Note 29: Financial Instruments (continued)

Derivatives

Derivative financial instruments are used across the portfolios to manage exposure to interest rate, foreign currency and electricity sector risk. These transactions do not generally involve any principal exchange at commencement. They are an agreement to change the characteristics of the underlying transactions. The credit exposure is therefore limited to the net market value movement resulting from changes in relevant interest rates or currencies. The notional value is therefore a reference to the calculation base, not a reflection of the counterparty exposure.

Carrying Value Carrying Value
As at 30 June 2016 As at 30 June 2015
Derivatives in gain Derivatives in loss Net carrying value Derivatives in gain Derivatives in loss Net carrying value
$m $m $m $m $m $m
Foreign exchange contracts 1,943 436 1,507 328 2,940 (2,612)
Foreign exchange options 1 1 1 3 (2)
Cross currency swaps 1,034 752 282 998 1,076 (78)
Interest rate swaps 1,993 2,664 (671) 996 1,688 (692)
Interest rate options
Futures 28 10 18 27 1 26
Other derivatives 889 714 175 665 553 112
Total derivatives 5,888 4,577 1,311 3,015 6,261 (3,246)
Notional Value Notional Value
As at 30 June 2016 As at 30 June 2015
Derivatives in gain Derivatives in loss Total Notional value Derivatives in gain Derivatives in loss Total Notional value
$m $m $m $m $m $m
Foreign exchange contracts 46,420 15,564 61,984 10,595 48,330 58,925
Foreign exchange options 17 293 310 19 75 94
Cross currency swaps 10,638 8,642 19,280 7,233 9,260 16,493
Interest rate swaps 41,363 51,547 92,910 35,977 49,829 85,806
Interest rate options 115 115
Futures 3,375 4,207 7,582 3,648 5,254 8,902
Other derivatives 24,101 15,359 39,460 21,157 14,264 35,421
Total derivatives 125,914 95,612 221,526 78,744 127,012 205,756

Derivatives in loss liquidity analysis

The following table shows the undiscounted cash flows of derivatives in loss based on the earliest date on which the Government can be required to pay. Some derivatives are settled on a net basis and others on a gross basis.

As at 30 June 2016 Total
cash flows
$m
$m 1-2 years
$m
2-5 years
$m
5-10 years
$m
> 10 years
$m
Derivatives in loss settled gross            
 - inflow 78,370 66,082 2,124 4,202 4,420 1,542
 - outflow 76,135 64,518 1,927 3,979 4,058 1,653
Total settled gross 2,235 1,564 197 223 362 (111)
Derivatives in loss settled net 3,636 873 644 1,468 603 48
Total net cash flows 5,871 2,437 841 1,691 965 (63)
Total cash flows 1-2 years 2-5 years 5-10 years > 10 years
As at 30 June 2015 $m $m $m $m $m $m
Derivatives
  settled gross
- inflow 74,288 62,292 3,265 3,879 3,653 1,199
- outflow 76,723 64,589 3,363 3,893 3,476 1,402
Total settled gross (2,435) (2,297) (98) (14) 177 (203)
Derivatives in loss
  settled net 3,518 1,095 324 760 616 723
Total net cash flows 1,083 (1,202) 226 746 793 520

Risk management

The Government's activities expose it primarily to the financial risks of changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, risk of default and liquidity risk. These risks are managed at portfolio level consistent with the policy purpose of the portfolio and risk management objectives. Detailed information on the exposure to market risk and policies for managing this risk are available in the separate financial statements prepared by the entities who manage each portfolio.

The Government's exposure to market risk reflects the combination of these portfolio management practices. These practices include use of Value-at-Risk (VaR) limits and stop-loss limits to manage risk. While NZDMO and Reserve Bank's activities collectively manage the core Crown's exposure to foreign exchange, there is no other centralised management of market or other risk.

There has been no significant change to the manner in which the Government reporting entities that manage the Government's portfolios, manage and measure risks from previous year.

Derivative financial instruments are used across the portfolios to manage exposure to interest rate, and foreign currency risk. Refer to pages 114 and 115 for further derivative information.

Interest rate risk

The Government is exposed to interest rate risk as entities in the Government reporting entity borrow and invest funds at both fixed and floating interest rates. This risk is managed at the entity level in accordance with their capital objectives and risk management policies. These objectives and policies include maintaining an appropriate mix between fixed and floating rate borrowings.

Foreign currency risk

The Government undertakes transactions denominated in foreign currencies, hence exposures to exchange rate fluctuations arise. Exchange rate exposures are managed within approved policy parameters utilising forward foreign exchange contracts and cross currency interest rate swaps. The carrying amounts of the Government's foreign currency denominated financial assets and financial liabilities translated to NZD at the reporting date are as follows:

30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Financial Assets (excluding derivatives)

 
New Zealand Dollar 55,635 53,929
United States Dollar 31,015 35,590
Yen 7,929 4,435
Euro 7,078 8,027
Other 18,263 18,259
Total financial assets (excluding derivatives) 119,920 120,240

Financial Liabilities (excluding derivatives)

 
New Zealand Dollar 112,919 110,578
United States Dollar 5,971 5,883
Yen 600 266
Euro 238 24
Other 2,874 3,014
Total financial liabilities (excluding derivatives) 122,602 119,765

Derivatives in gain/(loss)

 
New Zealand Dollar 43,745 44,287
United States Dollar (19,820) (25,621)
Yen (7,798) (4,146)
Euro (8,099) (7,534)
Other (6,717) (10,232)
Total derivatives 1,311 (3,246)

Net Financial Assets/(Liabilities)

 
New Zealand Dollar (13,539) (12,362)
United States Dollar 5,224 4,086
Yen (469) 23
Euro (1,259) 469
Other 8,672 5,013
Net Financial Assets/(Liabilities) (1,371) (2,771)

Note 29: Financial Instruments (continued)

Credit risk

Credit risk refers to the risk that a counterparty will default on its contractual obligations resulting in financial loss to the Government. The carrying value of financial assets equates to the maximum exposure to credit risk as at balance date. Credit risk is managed at the entity level in accordance with their capital objectives and risk management policies. These objectives and policies include limits to individual and industry counterparty exposure, collateral requirements, and counterparty credit ratings.

Of the financial assets held by the Government at 30 June 2016, the fair value of collateral held that could be sold or repurchased was $20,765 million (2015: $19,884 million). The majority of this relates to Kiwibank Limited, who can enforce their collateral in satisfying the debt in the event of the borrower failing to meet their contractual obligations.

Concentrations of credit exposure classified by credit rating, geography and industry of the counterparty are provided in the following tables.

Kiwibank loans consist mainly of residential lending. Therefore, these financial assets have been classified as non-rated and individuals for the purposes of credit risk.

Concentration of credit exposure by credit rating (using Standard & Poor's ratings)
As at 30 June 2016 Total
$m
AAA
$m
AA
$m
A
$m
Other
$m
Non-rated
$m
Cash and cash equivalents 15,617 1,574 9,312 4,640 78 13
Trade and other receivables 4,342 192 342 3,808
Long-term deposits 4,791 3,932 859
Derivatives in gain 5,888 426 3,431 1,328 346 357
Marketable securities 40,822 14,278 13,264 4,413 2,754 6,113
IMF financial assets 1,897 1,897
Share investments 24,217 374 2,281 5,503 5,850 10,209
Kiwibank loans 16,689 16,689
Student loans 8,982 8,982
Other advances 2,563 665 127 457 1,314
Total credit exposure by credit rating 125,808 16,652 33,077 17,212 11,382 47,485
Concentration of credit exposure by credit rating (using Standard & Poor's ratings)
As at 30 June 2015 Total
$m
AAA
$m
AA
$m
A
$m
Other
$m
Non-rated
$m
Cash and cash equivalents 11,982 39 10,807 1,036 62 38
Trade and other receivables 5,070 453 611 4,006
Long-term deposits 5,214 3,876 1,338
Derivatives in gain 3,015 398 1,435 640 171 371
Marketable securities 43,770 14,911 19,754 2,487 2,928 3,690
IMF financial assets 2,299 2,299
Share investments 25,408 378 2,580 5,408 4,824 12,218
Kiwibank loans 15,598 15,598
Student loans 8,864 8,864
Other advances 2,035 677 180 57 1,121
Total credit exposure by credit rating 123,255 15,726 39,582 11,700 10,341 45,906
Financial Assets
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Concentration of credit exposure by geographical area

 
USA 22,292 24,572
Europe 19,304 19,995
Japan 7,151 4,473
Australia 8,584 7,901
New Zealand 55,582 52,077
Other 12,895 14,237
Total financial assets 125,808 123,255

Concentration of credit exposure by industry

 
Sovereign issuers 22,447 23,361
Supranational 7,045 5,483
NZ banking 12,326 12,001
Foreign banking 14,671 12,162
Individuals 25,881 24,706
Other 43,438 45,542
Total financial assets 125,808 123,255

At 30 June 2016, 15.1% (2015: 15.2%) of student loan borrowers were overseas. As the total advanced is widely dispersed over a large number of borrowers, the scheme does not have any material individual concentrations of credit risk.

Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk refers to the risk that an entity will encounter difficulty in meeting obligations associated with financial liabilities.

Liquidity risk is managed on an individual entity basis generally by maintaining adequate reserves, banking facilities and reserve borrowing facilities, by continuously monitoring forecast and actual cash flows.

The following table details the Government's remaining contractual maturity for its financial liabilities. The table was compiled based on:

  • the undiscounted cash flows of financial liabilities based on the earliest date on which the Government can be required to pay, and
  • both interest and principal cash flows.
Financial Liabilities (excluding derivatives)
  30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Less than 1 year 49,340 53,029
1-2 years 16,350 5,184
2-5 years 39,888 40,675
5-10 years 23,830 26,997
More than 10 years 10,931 12,790
Total contractual cash flows 140,339 138,675
Total carrying value 122,602 119,765

The Government holds loan commitments of $2,650 million (2015: $2,452 million) which all have contractual cashflows of less than 1 year.

In addition to the above financial liabilities, the Crown has entered into various financial guarantees and indemnities totalling $287 million (2015: $310 million) which expose the Crown to liquidity risk. These guarantees are classified as contingent liabilities and are set out in note 28. For all these guarantees, the earliest period which the Crown would be required to pay if the guarantees are called upon is less than one year.

The Government has access to financing facilities, of which the total unused amount at 30 June 2016 was $976 million (2015: $857 million). The Government expects to meet its obligations from operating cash flows, from the results of bond tenders, and proceeds of maturing financial assets.

Note 29: Financial Instruments (continued)

Sensitivity analysis

The sensitivity of the fair value of the Government's financial assets and liabilities to changes in interest rates, NZ exchange rate and share prices are shown below. Any change would impact the operating balance and net worth of the Government.

Impact on operating balance Impact on net worth
2016
$m
2015
$m
2016
$m
2015
$m
Increase in NZ interest rates 1% (100 basis points) (896) (492) (887) (442)
Decrease in NZ interest rate 1% (100 basis points) 926 539 922 490
NZ dollar exchange rate strengthens by 10% (963) (907) (981) (890)
NZ dollar exchange rate weakens by 10% 1,087 1,043 1,109 1,035
Share prices strengthen by 10% 2,394 2,522 2,394 2,522
Share prices weaken by 10% (2,394) (2,522) (2,394) (2,522)

Interest rate sensitivity

The effect on the operating balance is primarily from changes in interest revenue and interest expense on floating rate instruments and changes in the value of instruments measured at fair value through profit and loss. The Government does not have material exposure to foreign interest rates.

The sensitivity analysis has been determined based on the exposure to interest rates for both derivatives and non-derivative financial instruments at the balance sheet date. The effect of exposure to interest rates on the valuation of non-financial instruments, such as the ACC liability and GSF defined benefit plan, are provided in the relevant notes to the financial statements.

Movements in interest rates affect the financial results of the Government in the following manner:

  • the resulting valuation changes for fixed interest instruments that are measured at fair value through the operating balance will affect the operating balance, while the valuation changes of fixed interest instruments designated as available-for-sale will affect equity reserves
  • the resulting changes in interest expense and interest revenue on floating rate instruments will affect the operating balance, and
  • where derivatives are designated as cash flow hedges of floating rate instruments, equity reserves will be affected by the resulting changes in the fair value of these derivatives.

If interest rates had been 100 basis points higher/(lower) at balance date and all other variables were held constant, the effect of financial instruments would increase/(decrease) the Government's financial results as outlined in the table above. The impact is net of any hedging by way of interest rate derivatives.

The Government's sensitivity to interest rates has increased since last year. Interest rate sensitivity on financial instruments have a minor impact compared with other longer-dated obligations such as ACC outstanding claims liability and the GSF defined benefit obligations (refer note 22 and note 23 for sensitivity information for these long-term liabilities).

Foreign currency sensitivity

The sensitivity analysis is net of hedging via foreign exchange derivatives, but does not include the impact on prices of goods and services purchased or sold in foreign currencies.

The Government's sensitivity to foreign currency has increased during the current period. This change is largely in relation to financial instrument portfolios held by NZS Fund and NZDMO offset by changes in relation to ACC's financial instrument portfolio.

Equity market sensitivity

Share investments are reported at fair value. Movements in share prices therefore directly translate into movements in the value of the share investment portfolio.

The sensitivity analysis above has been determined based on the exposure of the NZS Fund and ACC to share price risks at the reporting date. These portfolios combined make up 99% of the Government's total share investments (2015: 99%).

The Government's sensitivity to share prices has decreased from the prior year in line with a decrease in the level of share investments held.

Note 30: Related Parties

Related party relationships are a normal feature of commerce. Therefore, the Government will transact with related parties as a matter of course.

Related parties of the Government include:

  • Ministers of the Crown, who are key management personnel because they have authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the Government, directly or indirectly
  • Ministers' spouses, children and dependants who are close family members of key management personnel, and
  • private-sector entities owned or jointly controlled by Ministers, their spouses, children and dependants.

Given the breadth of Government activities these related parties transact with the government sector in the same capacity as ordinary citizens. Such transactions include the payment of taxes and user charges (such as purchase of electricity), and the receipt of entitlements and services (such as access to education). These transactions have not been separately disclosed in this note.

Other transactions with these related parties can include the employment of Ministers' spouses, children and dependants by a Government entity, including ministerial offices, departments, Crown entities and State-owned Enterprises, receipt of grants from, or the purchase or sale of goods and services to, a Government entity by Ministers, their spouses, children and dependants, or private-sector entities they own or jointly control. Such related party transactions will be disclosed if they have taken place within the Minister’s portfolio or if they involve lending or guaranteeing Minister’s.

Taking the above paragraphs into account, there are no related party transactions to be separately disclosed.

Note 31: Canterbury Earthquakes

These consolidated financial statements include both revenue and expenses for the Government as well as the best estimate of the Government‘s significant assets and liabilities in relation to the earthquakes and aftershocks that have occurred in the Canterbury region. In addition, the Crown is spending money on a number of capital projects in the Canterbury region. These projects, when capitalised, form part of the Crown's property, plant and equipment balance.

Amounts recognised in the statement of financial performance (operating expenses) as well as capital expenditure incurred to date in respect of the Canterbury earthquakes were:

        Actual
Note Total
to date
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
30 June
2014
$m
30 June
2013
$m
30 June
2012
$m
30 June
2011
$m
EQC insurance claims a 7,334 21 (444) (242) (107) 662 7,444
Local Infrastructure b 1,637 55 66 109 483 729 195
Land zoning c 1,087 88 (1) 97 (8) 258 653
Southern Response support package d 1,111 204 325 124 (53) 156 355
Christchurch central city rebuild e 920 153 179 473 115
Crown assets f 969 498 335 96 28 12
Other earthquake costs g 1,242 338 129 249 17 96 413
Total Crown net earthquake costs   14,300 1,357 589 906 475 1,913 9,060
Gross earthquake expenses   20,448 1,414 904 918 815 2,823 13,574
Earthquake related revenue (e.g. reinsurance)   (6,148) (57) (315) (12) (340) (910) (4,514)
Total Crown net earthquake costs   14,300 1,357 589 906 475 1,913 9,060

Operating and capital expenses

               
Operating expenses   12,084 587 (55) 326 266 1,900 9,060
Capital expenditure   2,216 770 644 580 209 13
Total Crown net earthquake costs   14,300 1,357 589 906 475 1,913 9,060

The capital expenditure for the year ($770 million) was largely in relation to the Justice and Emergency Precinct, hospitals, schools, state housing and universities. Operating expenses ($587 million) included costs associated with the greater Christchurch anchor projects, central city recovery and operating costs for entities involved in the rebuild (including the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority and Ōtākaro Limited).

The measurement of the Government's earthquake-related assets and liabilities contain a number of uncertainties. The largest and most complex valuations have been carried out by independent professional actuaries and represent a best estimate of the costs and income to be settled in the future. Such complex valuations need actuaries and other independent experts to make a number of assessments such as the number of outstanding claims, the amount of claims, the time expected to rebuild or repair damage property or infrastructure and making judgements over the escalation of costs due to building inflation in the Canterbury construction industry.

In particular, significant uncertainty continues to exist for EQC land claims where there has been severe land damage, because of a very complex land claims environment and the fact that relatively few land claims have been settled to date. As claims are settled and the reasonableness of assumptions are refined and tested against the emerging experience over time, the level of this uncertainty will reduce.

These results do not represent the total fiscal impact to the Government of the earthquakes, as some costs will not be determined until further decisions and actions on the recovery from the earthquakes are made. Instead they represent the costs to 30 June 2016. The costs outlined in this note also do not include the secondary impact on tax or other revenues as a result of the earthquakes. The final costs of the Canterbury earthquakes may differ from these estimates.

The significant assets and obligations where uncertainty exists are summarised in the following table.

Note 30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Canterbury earthquake-related obligations

 
EQC property damage liability a 2,158 2,741
Southern Response property damage liability d 807 1,216
Total insurance liabilities 2,965 3,957
Provision for Canterbury Red Zone support package 3
Provision for water infrastructure costs b 75 234
Other provisions 18 22
Total provisions 93 259
Inter-segment eliminations (329) (336)
Total Canterbury earthquake-related obligations 2,729 3,880

Canterbury earthquake-related receivables

 
EQC reinsurance receivables 515 962
Southern Response reinsurance receivables 19 102
Total reinsurance receivables h 534 1,064
Red Zone insurance recoveries c 336 344
Other receivables 36 31
Total other receivables 372 375
Inter-segment eliminations (329) (336)
Total Canterbury earthquake-related receivables 577 1,103
Net Canterbury earthquake-related obligations 2,152 2,777

Note 31: Canterbury Earthquakes (continued)

a) Earthquake Commission (EQC) Insurance Claims

EQC's obligation (and reinsurance recoveries) in relation to the Canterbury earthquakes has been valued by an independent actuary (Melville Jessup Weaver) as at 30 June 2016. The actuary considered that overall the information and data supplied to Melville Jessup Weaver was adequate and appropriate for the purposes of their valuation.

The key sources of uncertainty in estimating the obligation are:

  • Increased Liquefaction Vulnerability (ILV) land damage payments have only recently begun in small numbers limiting actual data on which to base the outstanding liability
  • the level of remedial activity required on repairs completed under the Canterbury Home Repair Programme, and
  • reaching an agreed financial settlement position with insurers and reinsurers as EQC seeks to finalise its liability.

Consequently there continues to be a degree of unavoidable uncertainty regarding the costs of claims yet to be determined. However, as the remaining dwelling claims continue to be settled and complex land settlements increase, the level of uncertainty continues to reduce as the valuation and its assumptions can be tested against increased claim payment data.

Other key areas of estimation risk relate to claims that have been incurred but not reported or claims where the estimates are considered insufficient. The volatility of these claims is partially mitigated by the maximum settlement amounts for dwellings and contents. However, claims in relation to residential land are not subject to a single monetary limit and are therefore subject to greater volatility.

These financial statements include additional EQC insurance costs (net of recoveries) relating to the Canterbury earthquakes of $21 million for the year ended 30 June 2016 (2015: $444 million net recovery).

30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Movement in Outstanding EQC Insurance Liability - Canterbury earthquakes

 
Opening balance 2,741 4,441
Net claims incurred/reassessed for the year 21 (455)
Claims paid out in the year (604) (1,245)
Closing outstanding EQC insurance liability - Canterbury earthquakes 2,158 2,741

During the year, $604 million was paid out to settle claims (2015: $1.2 billion). This takes the total for settling approved claims to $9.4 billion, leaving an outstanding insurance liability estimate of $2.2 billion, some of which is expected to be offset by reinsurance proceeds.

b) Local Infrastructure

In 2013 the Government entered into a cost sharing agreement with the Christchurch City Council (CCC) covering various items including the Crown contribution to three waters infrastructure (waste water, storm water and fresh water) response and rebuild costs and local roading. The agreement set out that the Government will contribute up to $1.8 billion to CCC for response costs and the recovery of Christchurch's essential infrastructure (water and roading). The agreement also acknowledges there is the possibility of unforeseen circumstances, so both parties can review the agreement in the future. A refresh of the cost sharing agreement is currently underway.

While best available information has been used to provide the estimate of water infrastructure recovery costs, significant uncertainties remain with regard to policy decisions on eligible expenditure, and the estimation of future eligible costs and validation of costs incurred to date.

The movement in the provision for water infrastructure costs during the year is set out below.

30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Movement in provision for Water Infrastructure costs

 
Opening provision 234 394
Provision used during the period (127) (176)
Reversal of previous provision (42)
Unwind of discount rate and effect of changes in discount rate 10 16
Closing provision 75 234

While costs associated with water infrastructure are recognised upfront, the repair of local roadways is recognised in the year of repair, consistent with the approach taken to all subsidised local roading repairs. This spreading of costs reflects that the first call for funding these future expenses will be from dedicated ring-fenced revenue in the form of road user charges, fuel excise duties, and registration fees paid to the National Land Transport Fund.

The Government and New Zealand Transport Authority (NZTA) have agreed that up to $50 million a year will be made available from the National Land Transport Fund for repairs to Canterbury roads. NZTA have entered into a loan agreement with the Crown to fund the ongoing NZTA contribution above this amount over a number of years. This loan facility will cease in the financial year ended 30 June 2017.

During the year, $74 million (2015: $50 million) was incurred for costs associated with the repair of local roadways taking the total costs of local roading repairs to date to $525 million.

c)   Land Zoning

On the 23 June 2011 the Government announced zones of land damage in Christchurch and parts of the Waimakariri district. This land was mapped into four zones, with “Red Zone” land identified as being unlikely to be suitable for continued residential occupation for a prolonged period of time. For this reason, the Government instigated a process for purchasing insured residential land in the Red Zone on a voluntary basis. Since the initial zoning announcement, further zoning announcements and other land zoning policy decisions were made.

Included within the land zoning costs for 30 June are both costs associated with the red zone support package, and expenses in relation to other land zoning related costs. Melville Jessup Weaver (a firm of consulting actuaries) was engaged to revalue the Crown's obligation and associated insurance recoveries for the red zone support package as at 30 June 2016. The actuary has used the latest available data to prepare this valuation. The amount included is the best estimate using this data rather than a final cost. It is acknowledged that there have been limitations on the data available from insurers particularly in relation to land recoveries.

d)   Southern Response Earthquake Services Support Package

On 7 April 2011 the Government provided a financial support package for AMI to give policyholders certainty and to ensure an orderly rebuild of Christchurch. The financial support to AMI was provided via a Crown Support Deed (CSD) under which the Crown subscribed for $500 million of convertible preference shares which were called but unpaid.

On 5 April 2012 IAG purchased the on-going insurance business of AMI. Immediately after completion of the sale, the Crown paid $100 million of the unpaid balance on the preference shares and took ownership of AMI's residual earthquake business. The earthquake business was renamed Southern Response Earthquake Services Limited (Southern Response). In the current year, the remaining $400 million of the convertible preference shares was paid.

On 30 January 2013, the Crown subscribed for 500 million uncalled ordinary shares. The company may issue call notices for a number of uncalled ordinary shares at $1 per share. In the current year, the Crown agreed to increase the uncalled ordinary share facility by $250 million. In the current year the company called and was paid $43 million of the uncalled ordinary shares.

Finity Consulting Pty Limited (the Appointed Actuary) has prepared the independent actuarial estimate of the Southern Response claims liability as at 30 June 2016. The actuary is satisfied with the nature, sufficiency and accuracy of the data used to determine the outstanding claims liability. The movement in Southern Response’s property damage liability is set out below:

30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Movement in Outstanding Southern Response Claims Liability

 
Opening balance 1,216 1,434
Net claims incurred/reassessed for the year - Canterbury earthquakes 199 334
Claims paid out in the year (608) (552)
Closing outstanding Southern Response claims liability 807 1,216

During the 2016 financial year $204 million of net expenses were recognised in relation to Southern Response support (2015: $325 million net expenses). Southern Response support costs include claims costs, net of insurance recoveries, plus the operating costs of the company.

The ultimate cost will be dependent on the financial performance of the company including the underlying claims settlement experience and further late notified claims in relation to the liability (and resulting reinsurance recoveries) arising from the Canterbury earthquakes. The uncertainties regarding Southern Response's outstanding claims liability are similar to those of EQC (with the exception of risks associated with land claims).

e)   Christchurch Central City Rebuild

The Government has agreed to contribute to certain Anchor Projects in the Christchurch central business district. During the year ended 30 June 2016, $153 million (2015: $179 million) has been recognised relating to both capital and operating costs for these projects. These costs include project costs incurred by CERA up until 18 April (the date CERA ceased to exist), as well as those of Ōtākaro Limited who subsequently have taken on the role of managing the Anchor Projects and central city rebuild.

f)   Crown Assets

Costs associated with Crown assets were $498 million (2015: $335 million) and include capital expenditure on Canterbury hospitals, the University of Canterbury and Lincoln University, the Justice and Emergency Services Precinct and Canterbury schools. 

g)   Other Earthquake Costs

Other costs represent various other initiatives raised in support of Canterbury. The 2016 net cost includes the operating costs of the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA), state highway repairs, and net operating and capital expenses incurred by Crown entities other than EQC on the repair and rebuild of damaged state houses, hospitals and universities in Canterbury.

h)   Reinsurance receivables

Associated with both EQC and Southern Response's insurance liabilities are reinsurance receivables. The movement in the Crown's total reinsurance receivable balance is set out below.

30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
Reinsurance receivables  
Opening balance 1,064 1,409
Reinsurance recognised/reassessed during the year 27 (25)
Reinsurance received during the year (557) (320)
Closing balance 534 1,064

Note 32: Events Subsequent to Balance Date

  • On 14 September 2016 the Crown and Auckland Council signed a Heads of Agreement under which the Crown will fund 50% of City Rail Link. The total cost of the project is estimated to be between $2.8 billion and $3.4 billion. A separate legal entity will be established to manage the project and will be jointly owned by the Crown and the Council.
  • On 15 September 2016 New Zealand Post announced that they had agreed commercial terms to sell a significant minority interest of Kiwibank to ACC and the New Zealand Superannuation Fund. As all the parties to the transaction are government reporting entities, there will be no fiscal impact on the financial statements of the Government as a result of this transaction.

Note 33: Significant Accounting Policies

Revenue

Taxation revenue levied through the Crown's sovereign power

The Government provides many services and benefits that do not give rise to revenue. Further, payment of tax does not of itself entitle a taxpayer to an equivalent value of services or benefits, since there is no relationship between paying tax and receiving Crown services and transfers. Such revenue is received through the exercise of the sovereign power of the Crown in Parliament.

Tax revenue is recognised when a taxable event has occurred and the tax revenue can be reliably measured. The taxable event is defined as follows:

Revenue type Revenue recognition point
Source deductions When an individual earns income that is subject to PAYE
Resident withholding tax (RWT) When an individual is paid interest or dividends subject to deduction at source
Fringe benefit tax (FBT) When benefits are provided that give rise to FBT
Income tax The earning of assessable income during the taxation period by the taxpayer
Goods and services tax (GST) When the purchase or sale of taxable goods and services occurs during the taxation period
Customs and excise duty When goods become subject to duty
Road user charges and motor vehicle fees When payment of the fee or charge is made
Other indirect taxes When the debt to the Crown arises
ACC levies The levy revenue is earned evenly over the levy period
Other levies When the obligation to pay the levy is incurred

The New Zealand tax system is predicated on self-assessment where taxpayers are expected to understand the tax laws and comply with them. Inland Revenue has implemented systems and controls (eg, performing audits of taxpayer records) in order to detect and correct situations where taxpayers are not complying with the various acts it administers.

Revenue earned through operations

Revenue from the supply of goods and services to third parties is measured at the fair value of consideration received. Revenue from the supply of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer. Revenue from the supply of services is recognised on a straight-line basis over the specified period for the services unless an alternative method better represents the stage of completion of the transaction.

Interest revenue

Interest revenue is accrued using the effective interest method.

The effective interest rate exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset's net carrying amount. The method applies this rate to the principal outstanding to determine interest revenue each period.

Dividend revenue

Dividend revenue from investments is recognised when the Government's rights as a shareholder to receive payment have been established.

Rental revenue

Rental revenue is recognised in the statement of financial performance on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease incentives granted are recognised evenly over the term of the lease as a reduction in total rental revenue.

Donated or subsidised assets

Where an asset is acquired for nil or nominal consideration, the fair value of the asset received is recognised as revenue in the statement of financial performance.

If control of the donated assets is conditional on the satisfaction of performance obligations, the revenue is deferred and recognised when the conditions are satisfied.

Gains

Gains may be reported in the Statement of Financial Performance when assets are revalued or liabilities are devalued in certain circumstances as described in the accounting policies for those assets and liabilities. For the purposes of reporting the operating balance before gains and losses (OBEGAL) these gains are excluded from total revenue and presented elsewhere in the Statement of Financial Performance.

Expenses

General

Expenses are recognised in the period to which they relate.

Welfare benefits and entitlements

Welfare benefits and entitlements, including New Zealand Superannuation, are recognised in the period when an application for a benefit has been received and the eligibility criteria have been met.

Grants and subsidies

Where grants and subsidies are at the government's discretion until payment, the expense is recognised when the payment is made. Otherwise, the expense is recognised when the specified criteria for the grant or subsidy have been fulfilled and notice has been given to the government.

Interest expense

Interest expense is accrued using the effective interest method.

The effective interest rate exactly discounts estimated future cash payments through the expected life of the financial liability to that liability's net carrying amount. The method applies this rate to the principal outstanding to determine interest expense each period.

Losses

Losses may be reported in the Statement of Financial Performance when assets are devalued or liabilities are revalued in certain circumstances as described in the accounting policies for those assets and liabilities. For the purposes of reporting the operating balance before gains and losses (OBEGAL) these losses are excluded from total expenses and presented elsewhere in the Statement of Financial Performance.

Foreign currency

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially translated at the foreign exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the statement of financial performance, except when recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense when hedge accounting is applied.

Non-monetary assets and liabilities measured at historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies and measured at fair value are translated into New Zealand dollars at the exchange rate applicable at the fair value date. The associated foreign exchange gains or losses follow the fair value gains or losses to either the statement of financial performance or the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense.

Foreign exchange gains and losses arising from translating monetary items that form part of the net investment in a foreign operation are reported in a translation reserve in net worth and recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense.

Sovereign receivables and taxes repayable

Receivables from taxes, levies and fines (and any penalties associated with these activities) as well as social benefit receivables which do not arise out of a contract are collectively referred to as sovereign receivables.

Receivables arising from sovereign revenue will be initially recognised at fair value. These receivables are subsequently adjusted for penalties and interest as they are charged, and tested for impairment. Interest and penalties charged on tax receivables are presented as tax revenue in the statement of financial performance.

Taxes repayable represent refunds due to taxpayers and are recognised at their nominal value. They are subsequently adjusted for interest once account and refund reviews are complete.

Note 33: Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Financial instruments

Non-derivative financial assets

Financial assets are designated into the following categories: loans and receivables at amortised cost, financial assets available-for-sale, financial assets held-for-trading and financial assets designated as fair value through the operating balance. This designation is made by reference to the purpose of the financial instruments, policies and practices for their management, their relationship with other instruments and the reporting costs and benefits associated with each designation.

The maximum loss due to default on any financial asset is the carrying value reported in the statement of financial position.

Major financial asset type Designation
Trade and other receivables All designated as loans and receivables at amortised cost
Student loans All designated as loans and receivables at amortised cost
Kiwibank mortgages All designated as loans and receivables at amortised cost
Other advances Generally designated as loans and receivables at amortised cost
IMF financial assets All designated as loans and receivables at amortised cost
Share investments Generally designated as fair value through the operating balance
Marketable securities Generally designated as fair value through the operating balance
Long-term deposits Generally designated as loans and receivables at amortised cost

Loans and receivables are recognised initially at fair value plus transaction costs and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method (refer interest revenue policy). Loans and receivables issued with durations of less than 12 months are recognised at their nominal value, unless the effect of discounting is material. Allowances for estimated irrecoverable amounts are recognised when there is objective evidence that the asset is impaired. Interest, impairment losses and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in the statement of financial performance.

Financial assets held-for-trading and financial assets designated at fair value through the operating balance are recorded at fair value with any realised and unrealised gains or losses recognised in the statement of financial performance.

A financial asset is designated at fair value through the operating balance if acquired principally for the purpose of trading in the short term. It may also be designated into this category if the accounting treatment results in more relevant information because it either significantly reduces an accounting mismatch with related liabilities or is part of a group of financial assets that is managed and evaluated on a fair value basis, such as with the NZ Superannuation Fund. Gains or losses from interest, foreign exchange and other fair value movements are separately reported in the statement of financial performance. Transaction costs are expensed as they are incurred.

Available-for-sale financial assets are initially recorded at fair value plus transaction costs. They are subsequently recorded at fair value with any resultant fair value gains or losses recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense, with some exceptions. Those exceptions are for impairment losses, any interest calculated using the effective interest method and, in the case of monetary items (such as debt securities), foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from translation differences due to changes in amortised cost of the asset. These latter items are recognised in the statement of financial performance. For non-monetary available-for-sale financial assets (eg, some unlisted equity instruments) the fair value movements recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense include any related foreign exchange component. At derecognition, the cumulative fair value gain or loss previously recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense, is recognised in the statement of financial performance.

Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, cash in transit, bank accounts and deposits with an original maturity of no more than three months.

Fair values of quoted investments are based on market prices. Regular way purchases and sales of all financial assets are accounted for at trade date. If the market for a financial asset is not active, fair values for initial recognition and, where appropriate, subsequent measurement are established by using valuation techniques, as set out in the notes to the financial statements. At each balance date an assessment is made whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired.

Non-derivative financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are designated into the following categories: amortised cost, financial liabilities held-for-trading and financial liabilities designated as fair value through the operating balance. This designation is made by reference to the purpose of the financial instruments, policies and practices for their management, their relationship with other instruments and the reporting costs and benefits associated with each designation.

Major financial liability type Designation
Accounts payable All designated at amortised cost
Government stock Generally designated at amortised cost
Treasury bills Generally designated at amortised cost
Government retail stock All designated at amortised cost
Settlement deposits with Reserve Bank All designated at amortised cost
Issued currency Not designated: Recognised at face value

Financial liabilities held-for-trading and financial liabilities designated at fair value through the operating balance are recorded at fair value with any realised and unrealised gains or losses recognised in the statement of financial performance. A financial liability is designated at fair value through the operating balance if acquired principally for the purpose of trading in the short term. It may also be designated into this category if the accounting treatment results in more relevant information because it either eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch with related assets or is part of a group of financial liabilities that is managed and evaluated on a fair value basis. Gains or losses from interest, foreign exchange and other fair value movements are separately reported in the statement of financial performance. Transaction costs are expensed as they are incurred.

Other financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value less transaction costs and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Financial liabilities entered into with durations of less than 12 months are recognised at their nominal value. Amortisation and, in the case of monetary items, foreign exchange gains and losses, are recognised in the statement of financial performance as is any gain or loss when the liability is derecognised.

Currency issued for circulation, including demonetised currency after 1 July 2004, is recognised at face value. Currency issued represents a liability in favour of the holder.

Derivative financial instruments

Derivative financial instruments are recognised both initially and subsequently at fair value. They are reported as either assets or liabilities depending on whether the derivative is in a net gain or net loss position respectively. Recognition of the movements in the value of derivatives depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument and, if so, the nature of the item being hedged (see Hedging section below).

Derivatives that are not designated for hedge accounting are classified as held-for-trading financial instruments with fair value gains or losses recognised in the statement of financial performance. Such derivatives may be entered into for risk management purposes, although not formally designated for hedge accounting, or for tactical trading.

Hedging

Individual entities consolidated within the Government reporting entity apply hedge accounting after considering the costs and benefits of adopting hedge accounting, including:

  • whether an economic hedge exists and the effectiveness of that hedge
  • whether the hedge accounting qualifications could be met, and
  • the extent to which it would improve the relevance of reported results.

(a) Cash flow hedge

Where a derivative qualifies as a hedge of variability in asset or liability cash flows (cash flow hedge), the effective portion of any gain or loss on the derivative is recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense and the ineffective portion is recognised in the statement of financial performance. Where the hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability (eg, where the hedge relates to the purchase of an asset in a foreign currency), the amount recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense is included in the initial cost of the asset or liability. Otherwise, gains or losses recognised in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense transfer to the statement of financial performance in the same period as when the hedged item affects the statement of financial performance (eg, when the forecast sale occurs). Effective portions of the hedge are recognised in the same area of the statement of financial performance as the hedged item.

When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in net worth at that time remains in net worth and is recognised when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognised in the statement of financial performance. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in the statement of comprehensive revenue and expense is transferred to the statement of financial performance.

(b) Fair value hedge

Where a derivative qualifies as a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of an asset or liability (fair value hedge) any gain or loss on the derivative is recognised in the statement of financial performance together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability. The carrying amount of the hedged item is adjusted by the fair value gain or loss on the hedged item in respect of the risk being hedged.

Inventories

Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost (calculated using a weighted average method) and net realisable value. Inventories held for distribution for public benefit purposes are recorded at cost adjusted where applicable for any loss of service potential. Where inventories are acquired at no cost, or for nominal consideration, their cost is deemed to be fair value, usually determined through an assessment of current replacement cost at the date of acquisition.

Inventories include unissued currency and harvested agricultural produce (eg, logs, wool). The cost of harvested agricultural produce is measured at fair value less estimated costs to sell at the point of harvest.

Note 33: Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Property, plant and equipment

Measurement on initial recognition

Items of property, plant and equipment (PPE) are initially recorded at cost. Cost may include transfers from net worth of any gains or losses on qualifying cash flow hedges of foreign currency purchases of PPE. Where an asset is acquired for nil or nominal consideration the asset is recognised initially at fair value, where fair value can be reliably determined, as revenue in the statement of financial performance.

Capitalisation of borrowing costs

Generally, Government borrowings are not directly attributable to individual assets. Therefore, borrowing costs incurred during the period, including any that could be allocated as a cost of completing and preparing assets for their intended use are expensed rather than capitalised.

Subsequent measurement

Subsequent to initial recognition, classes of PPE are accounted for as set out below.

Revaluations are carried out for a number of classes of PPE to reflect the service potential or economic benefit obtained through control of the asset. Revaluation is based on the fair value of the asset, with changes reported by class of asset.

Class of PPE Accounting policy
Land and buildings

Land and buildings are recorded at fair value and, for buildings, less depreciation accumulated since the assets were last revalued.

Land associated with the rail network and state highways is valued using an estimate based on adjacent use, as an approximation to fair value.

Valuations undertaken in accordance with standards issued by the New Zealand Property Institute are used where applicable.

Otherwise, valuations conducted in accordance with the Rating Valuation Act 1998, may be used if they have been confirmed as appropriate by an independent valuer.

When revaluing buildings, there must be componentisation to the level required to ensure adequate representation of the material components of the buildings.  At a minimum, this requires componentisation to three levels: structure, building services and fit-out.

Specialist military equipment

Specialist military equipment is recorded on a depreciated replacement cost basis less depreciation accumulated since the assets were last revalued.

Valuations are obtained through specialist assessment by New Zealand Defence Force advisers, and the basis for the valuation is confirmed as appropriate by an independent valuer.

State highways State highways are recorded on a depreciated replacement cost basis less depreciation accumulated since the assets were last revalued.
Rail network Rail infrastructure used for freight services (freight only and dual use lines required for freight operations) are recorded at fair value less depreciation accumulated since the assets were last revalued. Rail infrastructure not required for freight operations and used for metro services is recorded on a depreciated replacement cost basis less depreciation accumulated since the assets were last revalued.
Aircraft Aircraft (excluding specialised military equipment) are recorded at fair value less depreciation accumulated since the assets were last revalued.
Electricity distribution Electricity distribution network assets are recorded at cost, less depreciation and impairment losses accumulated since the assets were purchased.
Electricity generation Electricity generation assets are recorded at fair value less depreciation accumulated since the assets were last revalued.
Specified cultural and heritage assets Specified cultural and heritage assets comprise national parks, conservation areas and related recreational facilities, as well as National Archives holdings and the collections of the National Library, Parliamentary Library and Te Papa.  Of these, non-land assets are recorded at fair value less subsequent impairment losses.  Assets are not reported with a financial value in cases where they are not realistically able to be reproduced or replaced, and where no market exists to provide a valuation.  For example, Crown research institutes own various collections, library resources and databases that are an integral part of the research work they undertake. These collections are highly specialised and there is no reliable basis for establishing a valuation. They have therefore not been valued for financial reporting purposes.
Other plant and equipment Other plant and equipment, which includes motor vehicles and office equipment, are recorded at cost less depreciation and impairment losses accumulated since the assets were purchased.

Revaluation

Classes of PPE that are revalued are revalued at least every five years or whenever the carrying amount differs materially to fair value.

Items of PPE are revalued to fair value for the highest and best use of the item on the basis of the market value of the item, or on the basis of market evidence, such as discounted cash flow calculations. If no market evidence of fair value exists, an optimised depreciated replacement cost approach is used as the best proxy for fair value. Where an item of PPE is recorded at its optimised depreciated replacement cost, this cost is based on the estimated present cost of constructing the existing item of PPE by the most appropriate method of construction, less allowances for physical deterioration and optimisation for obsolescence and relevant surplus capacity. Where an item of PPE is recorded at its optimised depreciated replacement cost, the cost does not include any borrowing costs.

When an item of property, plant and equipment is revalued, any accumulated depreciation at the date of revaluation is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset and the net amount restated to the revalued amount of the asset.

Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in the value of PPE are recognised as at balance date. To the extent that a gain reverses a loss previously charged to the statement of financial performance for the asset class, the gain is credited to the statement of financial performance. Otherwise, gains are added to an asset revaluation reserve for that class of asset. To the extent that there is a balance in the asset revaluation reserve for the asset class, any loss is deducted from that reserve. Otherwise, losses are reported in the statement of financial performance.

Depreciation

Depreciation is charged on a straight-line basis at rates calculated to allocate the cost or valuation of an item of PPE, less any estimated residual value, over its remaining useful life.

Typically, the estimated useful lives of different classes of PPE are as follows:

Class of PPE Estimated useful lives
Buildings 25 to 150 years
Specialist military equipment (SME) 5 to 55 years
State highways:  
Pavement (surfacing) 7 years 
Pavement (other) 50 years
Bridges 70 to 105 years
Rail Network:  
Track and ballast 40 to 50 years
Tunnels and bridges 75 to 200 years 
Overhead traction and signalling 15 to 80 years
Aircraft (excluding SME) 10 to 20 years
Electricity distribution network 2 to 80 years
Electricity generation assets 25 to 100 years
Other plant and equipment 3 to 30 years

Specified heritage and cultural assets are generally not depreciated.

Note 33: Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Impairment

For assets held at cost, where an asset's recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount, it is reported at its recoverable amount and an impairment loss is recognised. The main reason for holding some assets (for example, electricity generation assets) is to generate cash. For these assets the recoverable amount is the higher of the amount that could be recovered by sale (after deducting the costs of sale) or the amount that will be generated by using the asset through its useful life. Some assets do not generate cash (for example, state highways) and for those assets, depreciated replacement cost is used. Losses resulting from impairment are reported in the statement of financial performance, unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount in which case any impairment loss is treated as a revaluation decrease.

Disposal

Realised gains and losses arising from disposal of PPE are generally recognised in the statement of financial performance when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the asset have transferred to the acquirer. Any balance attributable to the disposed asset in the asset revaluation reserve is transferred to taxpayer funds.

Public private partnerships

A public private partnership (also known as a service concession arrangement) is an arrangement between the Government and a private sector partner in which the private sector partner uses specified assets to supply a public service on behalf of the Government for a specified period of time and is compensated for its services over the period of the arrangement. The costs of the specified assets are financed by the private sector partner, except where existing assets of the Government (generally land) are allocated to the arrangement. Payments made by the Government to a private sector partner over the period of a service concession arrangement cover the costs of the provision of services, interest expenses and repayment of the liability incurred to acquire the specified assets.

The assets in a public private partnership are recognised as assets of the Government. If the assets are progressively constructed, the Government progressively recognises work-in-progress at cost and a financial liability of the same value is also recognised. When the assets are fully constructed, the total asset cost and the matching financial liability reflect the value of the future compensation to be provided to the private-sector partner for the assets.

Subsequent to initial recognition:

  • the assets are accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to the classes of property, plant and equipment that the specified assets comprise, and
  • the financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost.

Equity accounted investments

NZ GAAP determines the combination bases for entities that make up the Government reporting entity and is used by public benefit entities to determine whether they control another entity.

However, NZ GAAP is not clear about how the definitions of control and significant influence should be applied in some circumstances in the public sector, for example, where legislation provides public sector entities with statutory autonomy and independence, in particular with Tertiary Education Institutions. Treasury's view is that because the Government cannot determine their operating and financing policies, but does have a number of powers in relation to these entities, it is appropriate to treat them as associates.

Biological assets

Biological assets (eg, trees and sheep) managed for harvesting into agricultural produce (eg, logs and wool) or for transforming into additional biological assets are measured at fair value less estimated costs to sell, with any realised and unrealised gains or losses reported in the statement of financial performance. Where fair value cannot be reliably determined, the asset is recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. For commercial forests, fair value takes into account age, quality of timber and the forest management plan.

Biological assets managed for harvesting into agricultural produce, or being transformed into additional biological assets are reported as other assets. Other biological assets are recorded as other property, plant and equipment in accordance with the policies for property, plant and equipment.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets are initially recorded at cost.

The cost of an internally generated intangible asset represents expenditure incurred in the development phase of the asset only. The development phase occurs after the following can be demonstrated: technical feasibility; ability to complete the asset; intention and ability to sell or use; and development expenditure can be reliably measured. Research is “original and planned investigation undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding”. Expenditure incurred on the research phase of an internally generated intangible asset is expensed when it is incurred. Where the research phase cannot be distinguished from the development phase, the expenditure is expensed when incurred.

Where an intangible asset with a market value is internally generated for nil or nominal consideration it is initially reported at cost, which by definition is nil/nominal.

The Government's holdings of assigned amount units arising from the Kyoto protocol are reported at fair value. Other intangible assets with finite lives are subsequently recorded at cost less any amortisation and impairment losses. Amortisation is charged to the statement of financial performance on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset. Typically, the estimated useful life of computer software is three to five years.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortised, but are tested at least annually for impairment.

Realised gains and losses arising from disposal of intangible assets are recognised in the statement of financial performance when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have transferred to the acquirer.

Intangible assets with finite lives are reviewed at least annually to determine if there is any indication of impairment. Where an intangible asset's recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount, it is reported at its recoverable amount and an impairment loss is recognised. Losses resulting from impairment are reported in the statement of financial performance.

Goodwill is tested for impairment annually.

Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

Non-current assets or disposal groups are separately classified where their carrying amount will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than continuing use; that is, where such assets are available for immediate sale and where sale is highly probable. Non-current assets held for sale, or disposal groups, are recorded at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.

Investment property

Investment property is property held primarily to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both. It does not include property held primarily for strategic purposes or to provide a social service (eg, affordable housing) even though such property may earn rentals or appreciate in value - such property is reported as property, plant and equipment.

Investment properties are measured at fair value. Gains or losses arising from fair value changes are included in the statement of financial performance. Valuations are undertaken in accordance with standards issued by the New Zealand Property Institute.

Note 33: Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Employee benefits

Pension liabilities

Obligations for contributions to defined contribution retirement plans are recognised in the statement of financial performance as they fall due. Obligations for defined benefit retirement plans are recorded at the latest actuarial value of the Crown liability. All movements in the liability, including actuarial gains and losses, are recognised in full in the statement of financial performance in the period in which they occur.

Other employee entitlements

Employee entitlements to salaries and wages, annual leave, long service leave, retiring leave and other similar benefits are recognised in the statement of financial performance when they accrue to employees. Employee entitlements to be settled within 12 months are reported at the amount expected to be paid. The liability for long-term employee entitlements is reported as the present value of the estimated future cash outflows.

Termination benefits

Termination benefits are recognised in the statement of financial performance only when there is a demonstrable commitment to either terminate employment prior to normal retirement date or to provide such benefits as a result of an offer to encourage voluntary redundancy. Termination benefits settled within 12 months are reported at the amount expected to be paid, otherwise they are reported as the present value of the estimated future cash outflows.

Insurance contracts

The future cost of outstanding insurance claims liabilities are valued based on the latest actuarial information. The estimate includes estimated payments associated with claims reported and accepted, claims incurred but not reported, claims that may be re-opened, and the costs of managing these claims. Movements of the claims liabilities are reflected in the statement of financial performance. Financial assets backing these liabilities are designated at fair value through the operating balance.

Reinsurance

Premiums paid to reinsurers are recognised as reinsurance expense in the statement of financial performance. Premiums are measured from the attachment date over the period of indemnity of the reinsurance contract, in accordance with the expected pattern of the incidence of risk. Prepaid reinsurance premiums are included in prepayments in the statement of financial position.

Reinsurance and other recoveries receivable

Reinsurance and other recoveries receivable on paid claims and outstanding claims, are recognised as revenue in the statement of financial performance.

Recoveries receivable are assessed in a manner similar to the assessment of outstanding claims and are measured as the present value of the expected future receipts.

Leases

Finance leases transfer, to the Crown as lessee, substantially all the risks and rewards incident on the ownership of a leased asset. Initial recognition of a finance lease results in an asset and liability being recognised at amounts equal to the lower of the fair value of the leased property or the present value of the minimum lease payments. The capitalised values are amortised over the period in which the Crown expects to receive benefits from their use.

Operating leases, where the lessor substantially retains the risks and rewards of ownership, are recognised in a systematic manner over the term of the lease. Leasehold improvements are capitalised and the cost is amortised over the unexpired period of the lease or the estimated useful life of the improvements, whichever is shorter. Lease incentives received are recognised evenly over the term of the lease as a reduction in rental expense.

Note 33: Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Other liabilities and provisions

Other liabilities and provisions are recorded at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation. Liabilities and provisions to be settled beyond 12 months are recorded at the present value of their estimated future cash outflows.

Contingent liabilities and contingent assets

Contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reported at the point at which the contingency is evident or when a present liability is unable to be measured with sufficient reliability to be recorded in the financial statements (unquantifiable liability). Contingent liabilities, including unquantifiable liabilities, are disclosed if the possibility that they will crystallise is more than remote. Contingent assets are disclosed if it is probable that the benefits will be realised.

Commitments

Commitments are future expenses and liabilities to be incurred on contracts that have been entered into at balance date.

Commitments are classified as:

  • Capital commitments: aggregate amount of capital expenditure contracted for but not recognised as paid or provided for at balance date.
  • Lease commitments: non-cancellable operating leases with a lease term exceeding one year.

Cancellable commitments that have penalty or exit costs explicit in the agreement on exercising the option to cancel are reported at the value of those penalty or exit costs (ie, the minimum future payments).

Interest commitments on debts, commitments for funding, and commitments relating to employment contracts are not separately reported as commitments.

Comparatives

When presentation or classification of items in the financial statements is amended or accounting policies are changed voluntarily, comparative figures have been restated to ensure consistency with the current period unless it is impracticable to do so.

Comparatives referred to as Budget 2015 were forecasts published in the 2015 Budget Economic and Fiscal Update, while Budget 2016 were forecasts published in the 2016 Budget Economic and Fiscal Update. These forecasts include budget adjustments for new unallocated spending during the year (both operating and capital) and top-down adjustments which reduce the bias for forecast expenditure by departments to reflect maximum spending limits instead of mid-point estimates.

Segment analysis

The Government reporting entity is not required to provide segment reporting as it is a public benefit entity. Nevertheless, information is presented for material institutional components and major economic activities within or undertaken by the Government reporting entity. The three major institutional components of the Crown are:

  • Core Crown: This group, which includes Ministers, government departments, Offices of Parliament, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand and the New Zealand Superannuation Fund most closely represents the budget sector and provides information that is useful for fiscal analysis purposes. Investments in Crown entities and SOEs are reported at historic cost with no impairment. This ensures losses in those entities are reflected in the appropriate segment.
  • Crown entities: This group includes entities governed by the Crown Entities Act 2004. These entities have separate legal form and specified governance frameworks (including the degree to which each Crown entity is required to give effect to, or be independent of, government policy).
  • State-owned Enterprises: This group includes entities governed by the State-owned Enterprises Act 1986, and (for the purposes of these statements) also includes Air New Zealand, Mighty River Power (now Mercury NZ Limited), Meridian Energy and Genesis Energy. This group represents entities that undertake commercial activity.

Functional analysis is also provided of a number of financial statements items. This functional analysis is drawn from the Classification of the Functions of Government as developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Related parties

Related parties of the Government include key management personnel, and their close family members. Key management personnel are Ministers of the Crown, and their close family members are their spouses, children and dependants. Transactions between these related parties and a Government entity are disclosed in these financial statements only if they have taken place within a Minister's portfolio and they are not transactions entered into in the same capacity as an ordinary citizen.

Tertiary Education Institutions, joint ventures and the Government Superannuation Fund are also related parties of the Government due to the Government's influence over these entities. Transactions between these entities and Government entities are separately disclosed where material.

There are no other related parties as no other parties control the Government, and no other parties are controlled by the Government, other than those that are consolidated into the Financial Statements of the Government.

The Government comprises a large number of commonly controlled entities. Transactions between these entities are eliminated in these financial statements and therefore not separately disclosed.

Transactions where the financial results may have been affected by the existence of a related party relationship are disclosed in the financial statements.

Supplementary Statements

Statement of Unappropriated Expenditure
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Parliament's approval for the incurring of expenses or capital expenditure is generally given either by means of an Appropriation Act or an Imprest Supply Act followed by an Appropriation Act.

Imprest Supply Acts authorise the Government to incur expenses and capital expenditure, in advance of the passing of an Appropriation Act, up to a specified amount. Cabinet rules require any use of imprest supply to be authorised by a specific Cabinet decision or in some instances by delegated authority to joint ministers. All expenses and capital expenditure incurred under an Imprest Supply Act must be subsequently approved by Parliament prior to the end of the financial year. If not approved by Parliament prior to the end of the financial year, then the expenditure must be validated in an Appropriation (Confirmation and Validation) Act.

Expenses or capital expenditure that is incurred without an appropriation or other authority (such as an Imprest Supply Act) or that is incurred under imprest supply but not included in an Appropriation (Supplementary Estimates) Act by the end of the financial year, is classed as “unappropriated expenditure” and remains so until it is subsequently validated by Parliament.

Unappropriated expenditure is subject to specific requirements in the Public Finance Act 1989:

  • it must be disclosed in the annual financial statements of the Government, and of the relevant administering department, and
  • it must be retrospectively validated by Parliament through the passing of an Appropriation (Confirmation and Validation) Act.

The following table describes the various types of unappropriated expenditure that can typically occur during the year. Categories (A) to (C) represent unappropriated expenses with authority, whilst categories (D) to (F) represent unappropriated expenditure without authority. All unappropriated expenditure is reported and validated via an Appropriation Bill in the following year.

Category of unappropriated expenditure Reporting requirements to Parliament under the Act
(A)  Approved by the Minister of Finance under Section 26B of the Public Finance Act 1989 Where the amount in excess (but within the scope) of an existing appropriation was within $10,000 or 2% of the appropriation, Section 26B of the Act authorises the Minister of Finance to approve these items.  Such items must also be confirmed by Parliament in the Appropriation Act for the year.

(B)  With Cabinet authority to use imprest supply but in excess of appropriation prior to the end of the financial year

(C)  With Cabinet authority to use imprest supply but without appropriation prior to the end of the financial year

(D)  In excess of appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

(E)   Outside scope of an appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

(F)   Without appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

Where the unappropriated items exceed the limits available for approval under Section 26B, they fall into one of five categories of unappropriated expenditure. 

All such instances are unlawful unless validated by Parliament through an Appropriation Act (Section 26C of the Act).   

The validating legislation will be accompanied by a report to the House of Representatives that sets out each unappropriated item together with an explanation made by the Minister responsible for the appropriation. 

The following graph shows the number of unappropriated items by year:

Number of unappropriated items by year
Number of unappropriated items by year
Unappropriated Expenditure by Category
30 June
2016
Number
30 June
2015
Number
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m
  By category  
1 5 Approved by the Minister of Finance A 2 21
-   Cabinet authority to use imprest supply but in excess of appropriation B
1 Cabinet authority to use imprest supply but without appropriation C 3
6 7 Without Cabinet authority and in excess of appropriation D 52 31
1 3 Without Cabinet authority and outside scope E 11 11
5 8 Without Cabinet authority and without appropriation F 10 14
1 Other
14 24 Total unappropriated expenditure 78 77

In 2016 there were a total of 811 appropriations (2015: 868). Of these 14 or 1.7% were unappropriated (2015: 24 or 2.8%).

Statement of Unappropriated Expenditure (continued)

Department
Vote
Expense type
Appropriation name
Authority at time of breach
$000
Amount without or exceeding appropriation
$000

(A) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred in excess of existing appropriation and approved by the Minister of Finance under Section 26B of the Public Finance Act 1989

     

Ministry of Social Development

Social Development

Non-Department Capital Expenditure

Recoverable Assistance

150,159 2,158

The Recoverable Assistance appropriation is demand driven. There has been an across the board increase in the number of clients receiving grants, with a greater proportion of these clients receiving multiple grants.

Department
Vote
Expense type
Nature of expense or capital expenditure
Amount without appropriation
$000

(C) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred with Cabinet authority to use imprest supply but without appropriation prior to the end of the financial year

   

Ministry of Justice

Justice

Teina Pora ex-gratia compensation payment 2,521

On 13 June 2016 the Cabinet confirmed that Teina Pora will receive an ex gratia payment of $2.521 million for his wrongful conviction and imprisonment.

Department
Vote
Expense type
Appropriation name
Authority at time of breach
$000
Amount without or exceeding appropriation
$000

(D) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred in excess of appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

     

Department of Conservation

Conservation

Non-Departmental Other Expenses    
  Vesting of Reserves 650

4,747

An unplanned vesting of Rabbit Island Recreation Reserve following a Gazetted classification action by Tasman District Council (Reserves Act 1977 s26A) has resulted in the unappropriated expenditure.

Department
Vote
Expense type
Appropriation name
Authority at time of breach
$000
Amount without or exceeding appropriation
$000

(D) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred in excess of appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

     

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

Business, Science and Innovation

 

 

 

Non-Departmental Other Expenses

   
  Impairment of Crown Assets 1,140 66

In June 2016, Woosh Wireless (a wireless broadband operator company) had entered voluntary administration owing $0.066 million to Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment for Telecommunications Developments Levy charges. This debt is now doubtful and the Ministry has incurred the full $0.066 million as an expense.

Department
Vote
Expense type
Appropriation name
Authority at time of breach
$000
Amount without or exceeding appropriation
$000

(D) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred in excess of appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

     

Ministry for Culture and Heritage
Arts, Culture and Heritage

Non-Departmental Output Expenses

   
  Protection of Taonga Tūturu 400 254

In 2015/16 the Ministry for Culture and Heritage was invoiced for work carried out by the National Conservation Laboratory in both 2015/16 and 2014/15. The charges have resulted in the appropriation being exceeded by $0.254 million in 2015/16. The varying length (sometimes multi years) and complexity of the treatment programmes for each taonga tūturu has made it difficult in the past for the National Conservation Laboratory to forecast the total cost of treatment for each item. Work is underway to improve the forecasting and management of these services.

Department
Vote
Expense type
Appropriation name
Authority at time of breach
$000
Amount without or exceeding appropriation
$000

(D) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred in excess of appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

     

Ministry of Education

Education

 

Non-Departmental Other Expenses

   
 

Early Childhood Education

1 July 2014 - 30 June 2015

1,607,342 23,391

During the current financial year, Early Childhood Education expenditure of $23.391 million was identified as being incurred in the prior period but was not recognised previously. Combined with the unappropriated expenditure of $16.029 million reported in the prior financial year, the total unappropriated amount for this appropriation for the 2014/15 financial year was $39.420 million.

Department
Vote
Expense type
Appropriation name
Authority at time of breach
$000
Amount without or exceeding appropriation
$000

(D) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred in excess of appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

     

Ministry of Social Development

Social Development

 

 

Benefits or Related Expenses

   
  Accommodation Assistance 1,140,479 23,195

During the year the Ministry of Social Development identified that Accommodation Assistance had been miscalculated for a number of clients, resulting in a number of clients being underpaid. As a result, the Ministry has recognised an expense in relation to those underpayments.

Department
Vote
Expense type
Appropriation name
Authority at time of breach
$000
Amount without or exceeding appropriation
$000

(D) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred in excess of appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

     

Treasury

Finance

 

Non-Departmental Other Expenses

   
  Crown Residual Liabilities 86 4

The purpose of this appropriation is the administration of the Crown's residual obligations relating to the settlement of claims from exposure to asbestos. Historically expenditure has come in significantly below appropriation, however toward the end of the current financial year, The Treasury received an unexpectedly large number of invoices that resulted in the department going unappropriated.

Department
Vote
Expense type
Nature of expense or capital expenditure
Amount without appropriation
$000

(E) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred outside scope of an appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

   

Ministry of Justice

Justice

Departmental Other Expense

 

 

 

Recovery from February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake

1 July 2010 - 30 June 2011

10,814

A provision was established in 2011 by the Ministry of Justice against the Recovery from February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake appropriation. During the current financial year it was deemed that $10.814 million of this expenditure recorded in the 2010/11 financial year was outside the scope of the appropriation.

Department

Vote

Expense Type

Nature of expense or capital expenditure

Amount without appropriation

$000

(F) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred without appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply

   

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

Business, science and innovation

Non-Departmental Output Expense  
  The Pike River Mine site 125

The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment requested an in-principle transfer of $1.834 million from the previous financial year into the current financial year. This transfer was approved in November, however $0.125 million of output expense had already been incurred prior to the approval.

Department

Vote

Expense Type

Nature of expense or capital expenditure

Amount without appropriation

$000

(F) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred without appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply (continued)

   

Ministry of Health

Health

 

Health Sector Projects

 
  1 July 2013 - 30 June 2014 6,380
  1 July 2014 - 30 June 2015 1,221
  1 July 2015 - 30 June 2016 726

Ministry of Health had been provided with funding for Health sector projects to meet capital expenditure such as Burwood Hospital, Christchurch Hospital, Grey Hospital and the Southern Redevelopment Project. It has been identified that some costs associated with these projects, to comply with New Zealand General Accepted Accounting Practice, have been reclassified as operating expenses and could not be allocated to the capital expenditure appropriation. No operating expenditure appropriation for these costs exists.

Department

Vote      

Expense Type

Nature of expense or capital expenditure

Amount without appropriation

$000

(F) Expenses and capital expenditure incurred without appropriation and without prior Cabinet authority to use imprest supply (continued)

   

Ministry of Health

Health

 

Write off of costs on transfer value of Burwood Hospital

 

1,557

Costs of $1.557 million capitalised by the Ministry of Health associated with the external project management of Burwood Hospital did not form part of the final agreed transfer amount. This amount is required to be written off.

Statement of Expenses or Capital Expenditure Incurred in Emergencies
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Under section 25 of the Public Finance Act 1989, if a state of national emergency is declared under the Civil Defence Act 1983, Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002, or if the Government declares an emergency because of any situation that affects the public health or safety of New Zealand, the Minister of Finance may approve expenses or capital expenditure to meet such emergency or disaster whether or not an appropriation by Parliament is available for the purpose. Once expenses or capital expenditure have been incurred, the amounts that have not been appropriated must be disclosed in the annual financial statements of the Government for the financial year and sanctioned by Parliament in an Appropriation Act.

During the year there were no such emergency expenses or capital expenditure incurred.

Statement of Trust Money
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Trust money is defined by section 66 of the Public Finance Act 1989 as:

  • Money that is deposited with the Crown pending the completion of a transaction or dispute and which may become repayable to the depositor or payable to the Crown or any other person.
  • All money that is paid into Court for possible repayment to the payee or a third party, by virtue of any Act, rule or authority whatsoever.
  • All money that is paid to the Crown in trust for any purpose.
  • Money that belongs to or is due to any person and is collected by the Crown pursuant to any agreement between the Crown and that person.
  • Unclaimed money that is due to or belongs to any person and is deposited with the Crown.

Trust money exists only where there is a trustee/beneficiary relationship. Money set aside by the Crown or department for a particular purpose will normally not be trust money as there is no directly identifiable beneficiary who has deposited the money with the Crown.

Trust money held by the Crown is managed separately from public money.

Under the Act, the Treasury has the responsibility to manage and invest trust money. The Treasury may appoint agents (including departments) to act on its behalf. Written Notices of Appointment to Manage and Invest Trust Money are issued in these cases. Section 68 of the Act establishes the constraints on the investment of trust money.

Department
  Trust Account
As at
30 June 2015
$000
Contributions
$000
Distributions
$000
Revenue
$000
Expenses
$000
As at
30 June 2016
$000

Department of Conservation

           
Bonds/Deposits Trust 7,256 54  (758) 234 -   6,786
Conservation Project Trust 1,275 530  (790) 49 -   1,064
National Parks Trust 139 79  (76) 3 -   145
Walkways Trust 11 -   -   -   -   11
Wildlife and Reserves Trusts 1 -   -   -   -   -   -  

Department of Corrections

           
Prisons Trust 2,188 13,819  (14,569) -   -   1,438
Crown Law Office            
Legal Claims Trust 253 656  (370) 8  (2) 545

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

           
Coal and Minerals Deposits Trust 64 4  (6) -   -   62
Criminal Assets Management and Enforcement Regulators Association Trust 16 5 -   -   -   21
Employment Relations Service Trust 58 465  (177) 2  (26) 322
Employment Relations Act Security of Costs Trust 4 42 -   -   -   46
New Zealand Immigration Service Trust 1,302 259 (342) 33 - 1,252
Official Assignee's Office Trust 28,407 22,322 (14,711) 864 (13,629) 23,253
Patent Co-operation Treaty Fees Trust 134 1,109 (1,098) 4 (28) 121
Petroleum Deposits Trust 81 - - - - 81
Proceeds of Crime Trust 63,551 24,458 (14,036) 1,323 (10,979) 64,317
Radio Frequencies Tender Trust 226 10 (17) - - 219
Residential Tenancies Bond Trust 457,535 230,952 (220,822) 22,694 (22,694) 467,665
Weathertight Services Financial Assistance Trust - 6,429 (6,429) - - -

Ministry of Culture and Heritage

           
Dictionary of New Zealand Biography Trust 14 - - 1 - 15
New Zealand Historical Atlas Trust 147 - - 5 - 152
New Zealand History Research Trust 1,499 - (134) 56 - 1,421
New Zealand Oral History Awards Trust 970 - (122) 32 - 880
War History Trust 290 - - 8 (199) 99
National War Memorial Trust 2 - 8 - - - 8

New Zealand Customs Services

           
Customs Regional Deposit/Bonds Trust No.1, No.2 & No.3 78,417 33,540 (89,856) - - 22,101
Health Promotion Agency Trust 968 12,984 (12,959) - - 993
Heavy Engineering Research Association Trust 148 1,773 (1,782) - - 139
Maritime Safety Authority Trust 1 - - - - - -
New Zealand Customs Service IBM MSA Trust - 37,041 - - - 37,041
New Zealand Customs Service Multiple Deposit Scheme Release Trust 524 90,407 (90,734) - - 197
New Zealand Customs Service Multiple Deposit Scheme Suspense Trust 266 33,298 (33,558) - - 6
  1. Inoperative trust account
  2. New trust account
Department  
Trust Account
As at
30 June 2015
$000
Contributions
$000
Distributions
$000
Revenue
$000
Expenses
$000
As at
30 June 2016
$000

Ministry of Education

Code of Practice for Providers who Enrol International Students Trust 4,832 5,019 (2,466) 149 (423) 7,111
Conferences Trust 2 - - - - 2
Ngārimu VC and 28th (Māori) Battalion Memorial Scholarship Fund Board Trust  2 - - - - - -

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Afghanistan New Zealand Aid Programme Trust 412 - (412) 3 - 3
Cook Island Trust 231 1,919 (1,843) 21 (97) 231
Fred Hollows Foundation New Zealand Pacific Regional Blindness Prevention Programme Trust    3 - (3) - - -
Government Administration Building, Niue Trust 293 - (235) 7 - 65
New Zealand/France Friendship Trust 66 133 (152) 1 (12) 36
Niue Primary School Infrastructure Project Trust 1,927 1,400 (2,952) 36 - 411
Niue Development Assistance Trust 2,972 1,504 (1,676) 64 - 2,864

Ministry of Health

District Health Boards Deposit Trust 1,088 7,324,487 (7,324,151) - (500) 924
Medicines Review Objectors Deposit Trust 1 - - - - - -

Inland Revenue Department

Child Support Agency Trust 16,199 272,161 (276,645) - - 11,715
KiwiSaver Returned Transactions Trust 146 (102) - - - 44
KiwiSaver Employer Trust  1 - - - - - -
Reciprocal Child Support Agreement Trust 438 13,696 (13,695) - - 439

Department of Internal Affairs

Christchurch Earthquake Appeal Trust 7,191 5,856 (12,883) 2,214 - 2,378
Interloan Billing System Trust 79 - (36) 713 (713) 43
Macklin Bequest Fund Trust  285 - - 8 - 293
New Zealand 1990 Scholarship Trust  1 - - - - - -

Ministry of Justice

Courts Law Trust  18,023 16,568 (24,256) - - 10,335
Election Candidates Deposit Trust  1 - - - - - -
Employment Court Trust 350 321 (402) - - 269
Fines Trust  38,367 187,150 (184,421) - - 41,096
Foreign Currency Euro Fund Trust  1 - - - - - -
Foreign Currency United States Dollar Trust  1 - - - - - -
Legal Complaints Review Officer Trust 1 - (1) - - -
Maori Land Court Trust  43 6 (4) - - 45
Supreme Court Trust 52 100 (58) - - 94
Victims' Claims Trust 4 184 (122) - - 66
  1. Inoperative trust account
  2. New trust account

Statement of Trust Money (continued)
for the year ended 30 June 2016

Department  
Trust Account
As at
30 June
2015
$000
Contributions
$000
Distributions
$000
Revenue
$000
Expenses
$000
As at
30 June
2016
$000

Land Information New Zealand

           
Crown Forestry Licences Trust 422 6,739 (7,089) - - 72
Deposits Trust  1 - - - - - -
Endowment Rentals Trust 1 186 (186) - - 1
Hunter Gift for the Settlement of Discharged Soldiers Trust 56 1 - - - 57

New Zealand Police

           
Bequests, Donations and Appeals Trust - - - - - -
Found Money Trust 71 188 (124) - - 135
Money in Custody Trust 12,708 10,045 (10,823) - - 11,930
Reparation Trust 5 - - - - 5
Rewards Monies Trust  1 - - - - - -

Ministry for Primary Industries

           
MAF Overfishing Account Trust 4,222 4,695 (1,743) 153 - 7,327
MAF Fish Forfeit Property Trust 2,278 40 (1,108) 44 - 1,254
Meat Board Levies Trust     - 68,625 (68,621) - - 4
National Animal Identification Tracing Trust 1 2,624 (2,621) - - 4
Seized Timber Trust 10 - - - - 10

Ministry of Social Development

           
Australian Dollar Embargoed Arrears Trust 559 6,174 (6,254) - - 479
Australian Recovery Debt Trust 2 10 (10) - - 2
Maintenance Trust 108 388 (476) 3 - 23
Netherlands Recovery Debt Trust 11 88 (95) - - 4
Overseas Debt Recovery Trust  1 - - - - - -
WR Wallace Trust 424 - (57) 52 - 419

Treasury

           
Genesis Share Offer Trust 30 - - - (10) 20
Meridian Share Offer Trust 25 - - - (16) 9
Mighty River Share Offer Trust 3 - - - (2) 1
Trustee Act 1956 Trust 5,822 4,403 (871) 150 (142) 9,362
Total 765,505 8,444,852 (8,449,837) 28,934 (49,472) 739,982
  1. Inoperative trust account
  2. New trust account

Additional Financial Information

Fiscal Indicator Analysis
for the year ended 30 June 2016

The purpose of the following fiscal indicator analysis is to provide a link between the financial statements (published on pages 34 to 152) and the fiscal indicators used to measure the Government's performance against the fiscal objectives set out in the Fiscal Strategy Report.

The fiscal analysis comprises two statements: core Crown residual cash and debt.

Core Crown Residual Cash

The core Crown residual cash statement measures the core Crown cash surplus (or deficit), after operating and investing cash requirements are met, that is available for the Government to invest, repay, or, in the case of a deficit, fund in any given year.

Debt

The debt statement presents the calculation of both gross debt and net debt.

Gross debt is defined as gross-sovereign issued debt and represents debt issued by the sovereign (core Crown) and includes Government stock held by the NZS Fund, Accident Compensation Corporation, and the Earthquake Commission. Gross debt excludes Reserve Bank settlement cash and Reserve Bank bills as these are issued for liquidity management purposes.

Net debt is debt after deducting financial assets of the core Crown from gross debt.

Fiscal Indicator Analysis - Core Crown Residual Cash
for the year ended 30 June 2016

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Core Crown Cash Flows from Operations

 
68,282 69,018 Tax receipts 69,750 66,348
835 829 Other sovereign receipts 835 889
1,718 1,660 Interest, profits and dividends 1,699 1,806
2,438 2,046 Sale of goods & services and other receipts 2,026 2,433
(24,498) (24,449) Transfer payments and subsidies (24,338) (23,895)
(43,745) (43,942) Personnel and operating costs (43,103) (42,064)
(3,691) (3,627) Finance costs (3,604) (3,922)
(305) (2) Forecast for future new operating spending
1,025 600 Top-down expense adjustment
2,059 2,133 Net core Crown operating cash flows 3,265 1,595
(2,928) (2,336) Net purchase of physical assets (1,971) (1,955)
(1,216) (64) Net increase in advances (468) (570)
(2,045) (1,917) Net purchase of investments (2,148) (1,525)
Government share offer programme 628
(316) (31) Forecast for future new capital spending
280 100 Top-down capital adjustment
(6,225) (4,248) Net Core Crown capital cash flows (4,587) (3,422)
(4,166) (2,115) Residual cash deficit (1,322) (1,827)

The residual cash deficit is funded as follows:

 

Debt programme cash flows

 
Market:  
8,462 8,343      Issue of government bonds 8,079 8,058
(1,777) (1,779)      Repayment of government bonds (1,779) (8,684)
(2,400) (3,653)      Net issue/(repayment) of short-term borrowing1 (3,513) 4,179
4,285 2,911 Total market debt cash flows 2,787 3,553
Non market:  
     Issue of government bonds
(303) (138)      Repayment of government bonds (139) (482)
(100) (100)      Net issue/(repayment) of short-term borrowing (100) (480)
(403) (238) Total non-market debt cash flows (239) (962)
3,882 2,673 Total debt programme cash flows 2,548 2,591

Other borrowing cash flows

 
509 (1,036) Net (repayment)/issue of other New Zealand dollar borrowing (3,546) 3,207
(722) 844 Net (repayment)/issue of foreign currency borrowing 3,176 (2,757)
(213) (192) Total other borrowing cash flows (370) 450

Investing cash flows

 
337 491 Other net sale/(purchase) of marketable securities and deposits 685 795
164 564 Issues of circulating currency 378 372
(4) (1,421) Decrease/(increase) in cash (1,919) (2,381)
497 (366) Total investing cash flows (856) (1,214)
4,166 2,115 Residual cash deficit funding 1,322 1,827

1 Short-term borrowing consists of Treasury Bills and may include Euro-Commercial Paper

Fiscal Indicator Analysis - Debt
as at 30 June 2016

2016 Forecast Actual
Budget
2015
$m
Budget
2016
$m
30 June
2016
$m
30 June
2015
$m

Gross and net core Crown debt analysis:

 
113,377 113,009 Total borrowings 113,956 112,580

Net core Crown debt:

 
94,467 95,670 Core Crown borrowings1 95,037 95,649
(1,280) (1,606) Add back NZS Fund holdings of sovereign-issued debt and NZS Fund borrowings (1,754) (2,493)
93,187 94,064 Gross sovereign-issued debt2 93,283 93,156
73,729 74,843 Less core Crown financial assets3 75,793 76,434
19,458 19,221 Net core Crown debt (including NZS Fund)4 17,490 16,722
30,714 28,899 Add back NZS Fund holdings of core Crown financial assets and NZS Fund financial assets5 29,778 29,769
50,172 48,120 Net core Crown debt (excluding NZS Fund)4 47,268 46,491
15,425 14,152 Advances 14,612 14,140
65,597 62,272 Net core Crown debt (excluding NZS Fund and advances)6 61,880 60,631
26.3% 24.9% As a percentage of GDP 24.6% 25.1%

Gross debt:

 
93,187 94,064 Gross sovereign-issued debt2 93,283 93,156
(7,625) (8,881) Less Reserve Bank settlement cash and bank bills (7,955) (8,631)
1,600 1,600 Add back changes to DMO borrowing due to settlement cash7 1,600 1,600
87,162 86,783 Gross sovereign-issued debt excluding settlement cash and bank bills 86,928 86,125
34.9% 34.7% As a percentage of GDP 34.5% 35.6%
  1. Core Crown borrowings in this instance includes unsettled purchases of securities (classified as accounts payable in the statement of financial position).
  2. Gross Sovereign-Issued Debt (GSID) represents debt issued by the sovereign (the core Crown) and includes Government stock held by the New Zealand Superannuation Fund (NZS Fund), ACC and EQC.
  3. Core Crown financial assets exclude receivables.
  4. Net core Crown debt represents GSID less financial assets. This can provide information about the sustainability of the Government's accounts, and is used by some international agencies when determining the creditworthiness of a country.
  5. Adding back the NZS Fund assets provides the financial liabilities less financial assets of the core Crown, excluding those assets set aside to meet part of the future cost of New Zealand superannuation.
  6. Net core Crown debt (excluding NZS Fund and advances) excludes financial assets which are held for public policy rather than treasury management purposes.
  7. The Reserve Bank has used $1.6 billion of settlement cash to purchase reserves that were to have been funded by the NZ Debt Management Office borrowing. Therefore, the impact of settlement cash on GSID is adjusted by this amount.

Information on State-owned Enterprises and Crown Entities

Accounting Policies

The Crown's financial interest in State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) and Crown entities (CEs) is reported in accordance with the Crown's accounting policies. Adjustments have been made to restate the financial position and financial performance of certain entities, as reported in their own financial statements, to a basis consistent with the Crown's accounting policies.

With the exception of Tertiary Education Institutions (TEIs) the Crown has line-by-line combined all SOEs and CEs.

The Crown has equity accounted 100% of the net assets of TEIs on the basis that, in the event of disestablishment of a TEI (which is subject to a resolution of the House of Parliament), 100% of the net assets revert to the Crown in the absence of a decision to transfer the assets to a new or existing institution and, in the meantime, the Crown enjoys the benefits of the provision of a higher education to the public of New Zealand (refer note 19).

Mixed Ownership Companies

In addition to the core Crown's direct investment in the mixed ownership companies (Air New Zealand, Genesis Energy, Meridian Energy and Mighty River Power (now Mercury NZ Limited)) a number of Crown Financial Institutions (CFIs) have invested in the companies as part of their normal investment activities. These investments have the effect of reducing the overall minority interest.

Company % minority interest
before CFI investment  
% minority interest
after CFI investment  
Air New Zealand 48.09% 45.89%
Genesis Energy 48.77% 46.14%
Meridian Energy 48.98% 45.57%
Mighty River Power (now Mercury NZ Limited) 48.85% 45.64%

Balance Dates

Except for those entities listed below, all SOEs and significant CE's have a balance date of 30 June, and the information reported in these financial statements is for the period ended 30 June 2016:

Crown entities Balance date Information reported to
New Zealand Symphony Orchestra 31 December 30 June 2016
School boards of trustees 31 December 31 December 2015
TEIs 31 December 30 June 2016

Information on State-owned Enterprises and Crown Entities (continued)

The results presented in the following tables use Crown accounting policies and classifications. As a consequence the results may differ from those published in individual annual reports and profit announcements.

 30 June 2016  30 June 2015
Revenue
(excl
gains)
$m
Expenses
(excl
losses)
$m
Operating
balance
$m
Distributions 
$m
Revenue
(excl
gains)
$m
Expenses
(excl
losses)
$m
Operating
balance
$m
Distributions
$m

State-owned enterprises

       
Airways Corporation of New Zealand Limited 205 183 23 9 186 172 15 4
AsureQuality Limited 190 185 12 7 189 179 11 10
Landcorp Farming Limited 210 218 12 224 219 (20) 7
New Zealand Post Group 2,126 2,029 141 5 2,241 2,149 144 5
KiwiRail Holdings Limited 730 929 (207) 769 871 (96)
Transpower New Zealand Limited 1,043 821 185 178 1,046 785 115 166
Kordia Group Limited 242 229 12 6 249 239 9
New Zealand Railways Corporation 1 3
Other State-owned enterprises 360 511 114 25 507 678 (171) 3
Total State-owned enterprises 5,106 5,105 292 230 5,411 5,293 10 195
Air New Zealand Limited 5,284 4,766 550 219 4,981 4,608 834 246
Genesis Energy Limited 1,975 1,889 87 162 2,067 1,982 142 146
Meridian Energy Limited 2,375 2,100 185 501 2,912 2,614 247 385
Mighty River Power Limited (now Mercury Energy) 1,114 989 160 228 1,240 1,202 49 260
Less minority interests (474) (509) (384) (476)
Total mixed ownership companies 10,748 9,744 508 601 11,200 10,406 888 561
Intra-segmental eliminations (477) (641) (80) (937) (991) (209)
Total SOE segment 15,377 14,208 720 831 15,674 14,708 689 756

Crown Entities

       
Accident Compensation Corporation 5,197 5,487 (3,368) 5,444 5,364 1,611 -  
Crown Fibre Holdings Limited 16 95 (111) 1 29 132 (103)
Crown Research Institutes 677 658 25 660 638 19 4
Callaghan Innovation 249 249 232 230 2
District Health Boards 13,453 13,550 (98) 13,065 13,097 (32)
Earthquake Commission 364 396 (33) 349 (308) 658
Housing New Zealand Corporation 1,287 1,132 101 30 1,209 995 108 108
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa 55 62 (6) 59 65 (5)
New Zealand Fire Service Commission 388 385 366 374 (3)
New Zealand Lotteries Commission 927 723 204 848 650 199
New Zealand Transport Agency 2,400 2,398 (149) 2,289 2,265 (43)
Otakaro Limited 29 14 14
Public Trust 67 14 5 68 70 (2)
Schools 7,284 7,195 83 6,968 6,887 75
Southern Response Earthquake Services 37 225 (182) 52 360 (329)
Tamaki Regeneration Limited