- CPI inflation rose to 4% in June 2008 and is expected to peak around 5% in September
- Our view is that GDP growth was negative in the second quarter of 2008
- With continuing weak growth, inflation is expected to ease in the medium term
- The international financial situation remains uncertain and the outlook is for lower world growth
Consumer price inflation rose to 4.0% in the year to June and was greater than forecast at the Budget Update. Tradable inflation increased and was driven by higher food and petrol prices. Annual inflation is expected to peak at around 5% in September 2008, again due to higher food and petrol prices and higher non-tradable inflation. A weakening New Zealand dollar will influence the extent and speed at which inflation falls beyond this period.
Firms' activity was down in the June quarter and more are expecting activity to be down in the September quarter. Cost pressures have increased and firms' profitability has declined. Although pricing intentions have increased, firms will find it difficult to pass on higher costs and have reduced employment and investment intentions.
Domestic demand has weakened and private consumption is expected to have fallen in the June quarter. As food and petrol prices increase, spending on more discretionary items has fallen. Retail sales fell in May and reflected a sharp fall in motor vehicle sales. Consumer confidence declined in July and weak electronic card transactions data suggests retail sales were soft in June.
House sales remain weak and building consents fell further in June. As the housing market weakens, residential investment is expected to decrease. Falling exports and higher imports also point to weak GDP growth in the quarter. With world growth expected to slow in the second half of 2008 and international financial conditions remaining uncertain, we look at the global economic outlook as a Special Topic.
Our view is that the economy contracted for the second consecutive quarter in June. Annual average growth in real production GDP in the calendar 2008 year is expected to slow to ½% - ¾%. With demand weakening, capacity constraints will ease and inflation will decrease in the medium term. With risks of the economy slowing further and CPI inflation expected to fall back within the 1-3% range in the medium term, the Reserve Bank cut the Official Cash Rate by 25 basis points to 8.0%.
Growth is expected to pick up in the December 2008 quarter owing to the combined effects of tax cuts on 1 October 2008, recovery from the drought, high export prices, the weakening New Zealand dollar and more reductions in the OCR.
Following recent data releases, we consider the economy contracted in June 2008, its second consecutive quarterly decrease. Inflation is currently high, but should eventually ease as a result of continuing weak GDP growth, although international developments will remain important. With downside risks to growth and inflation expected to ease from a peak in September, the Reserve Bank cut the Official Cash Rate by 25 basis points to 8.0% on 24 July.
Inflation rose in June…
Annual CPI inflation increased to 4.0% in the June quarter, up from 3.4% in the March quarter. The CPI recorded a quarterly increase of 1.6%, the largest increase since June 1990 (Figure 1). The result was at the higher end of market expectations, and higher than the Reserve Bank’s latest published forecasts and our Budget Update forecast.
- Figure 1 – CPI Inflation
- Source: Statistics NZ
…due to higher fuel and food prices…
The main contributors to higher inflation in the June quarter were fuel and food. Price increases in the transport and food groups contributed 1.2 percentage points to CPI inflation in the June quarter. Tradable inflation was 2.3% in the June quarter and 4.8% annually (Figure 2). Fuel and food prices were the main contributors to this elevated rate of tradable inflation.
Non-tradable inflation was 0.9% in the June quarter and 3.4% annually. The main contributor to non-tradable inflation in the June quarter was the housing group, particularly electricity and construction costs. In the near term, construction cost inflation should ease to reflect the current slowing in the housing market. The slowing in the housing market was reflected in some moderation in rent inflation to 0.7% in the quarter, down from 1.2% in the March quarter.
- Figure 2 – Tradable and Non-tradable Inflation
- Source: Statistics NZ
…and will increase further in September…
Inflation is currently above the Reserve Bank’s medium term target range of 1-3% on both non-tradable and tradable measures. One-off increases in government subsidies lowered the prices of doctors’ visits and early childhood education in mid-2007. This effect will drop out of the annual CPI inflation calculation in the September quarter, resulting in higher annual inflation. Higher food and fuel prices and a fall in the New Zealand dollar also pose upside risks to inflation. We expect annual inflation to peak around 5% in the September quarter.
…reflecting higher cost pressures...
Inflation is likely to remain high as more firms intend to raise prices due to increased cost pressures and reduced profit margins. The Quarterly Survey of Business Opinion (QSBO) showed a net 68% of firms experienced increased costs in the last three months, up from a net 59% in the March survey. In addition, a net 71% of firms expect cost increases in the next three months, up from a net 62%. This is the highest level of firms expecting cost increases since December 1982. Cost pressures are coming from rising wages, raw materials and electricity prices. Firms are also expected to face higher costs of credit following the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the US.
…and rising pricing intentions
With higher costs eroding profit margins, more firms are expecting to increase prices. A net 49% of firms intend to increase selling prices, up from a net 45% and the highest figure since March 1987 (Figure 3). Although pricing intentions have increased, firms will find it difficult to pass these higher costs onto consumers in an environment where households are pulling back on spending.
- Figure 3: CPI inflation and Firms’ Pricing Intentions
- Sources: NZIER, Statistics NZ
More firms are expecting activity to decline…
Firms’ own activity was down in the June quarter and more firms are expecting activity to be down in the September 2008 quarter, according to the QSBO. A net 18% of firms reported a decrease in their own activity, which is up from a net 7% in the previous survey and is the largest reported decrease since June 1998. In addition, a net 18% of firms expect their own activity to decrease in the next three months. This is up from a net 8% and is the equal highest number of respondents expecting a decrease since 1982 (all figures seasonally adjusted).
- Figure 4 – Real GDP and Own Activity Outlook
- Sources: NZIER, Statistics NZ
The decline in business activity is one factor leading us to consider that real GDP fell in June for the second consecutive quarter (Figure 4). Combined with a weaker activity outlook we expect annual average growth in real production GDP in the calendar 2008 year to slow to ½% - ¾% while the expenditure measure may even turn negative. These results are supported by the National Bank Business Outlook survey which showed firms’ activity outlook weakened further in July 2008. The net percent of firms now expecting activity to weaken is at levels comparable to the 1991 recession.
…and profitability to decrease…
In line with a decline in June quarter business activity, more firms expect profitability to decline in the September quarter. A net 40% of firms expect profitability to decline in the next three months, up from a net 33% in the March survey, the highest figure since 1982. With profitability expected to decrease, firms’ employment and investment intentions have also declined. A net 6% of firms intend to reduce staff in the next three months and difficulty finding skilled and unskilled labour has fallen, pointing to a weakening labour market. Investment intentions have also fallen with a net 17% of firms expecting to reduce investment in plant and machinery. With lower profits, a slowing labour market and weak spending, we expect tax receipts to be less than forecast in the Budget Update for the year to June 2008.
…partly due to a lack of demand
The fall in profitability, both experienced and expected, is due to weakening demand from households and increasing cost pressures. More firms are now reporting demand as the main constraint on production as opposed to supply factors such as labour, finance and capital. This further suggests that demand is weakening and that pressure on resources is easing. A net 59% of firms identified a lack of demand as the main factor most limiting output expansion, up from a net 49% in March (Figure 5).
- Figure 5 – Orders as the main constraint
- Source: NZIER
Consumer spending weakens…
Demand has weakened as households come under pressure from rising food and fuel prices. The food price index shows that food prices increased 8.2% in the year to June 2008, the highest annual increase since June 1990. High food prices have been driven by increased global demand, and supply reductions due to drought and competing land use from biofuel production.
Fuel prices have also increased strongly and although they have eased recently from a peak of around $2.19 per litre, 91 octane is still currently above $2.00 per litre, which is approximately 50 cents more than a year ago. The recent fall in the price of petrol reflects the decrease in the international price for oil due to easing tensions in the Middle East and a weaker world outlook. This month we look at the world economic outlook in the Special Topic.
…as indicated by weak retail sales…
Total retail sales fell 1.2% in May and reflected a sharp fall in motor vehicle retailing. Core retail sales (retail sales ex-auto) rose 0.7% in May, with the increase largely reflecting higher food prices. Core retail sales excluding supermarket and grocery stores fell 0.3% in May. With the price of these staple goods increasing, spending on more discretionary goods has fallen. Retail sales excluding food and petrol have fallen steadily on an annual basis since mid 2007. Motor vehicle retailing has fallen 18.0% since May 2007 and is another sign of households pulling back on purchasing big-ticket items. This pull-back on spending is likely to have continued with electronic card transactions data and consumer confidence suggesting retail sales were soft in June.
…and consumer confidence
Consumer confidence fell in July with a net 27% of respondents believing that the economy will deteriorate during the next 12 months, as measured by Colmar Brunton. The total value of electronic card transactions in retail stores fell 0.4% in June and was up only 0.5% in the quarter. Excluding the auto industry, electronic card transactions fell 1.2% in June and 0.6% in the June quarter, the largest quarterly decline since the series began five years ago. With CPI inflation at 1.6% in the June quarter, both retail sales volumes and real consumption growth are expected to be negative in the June quarter.
Finance companies have suspended around $1 billion of investors’ money in July and are now part of the growing number of finance companies collapsing or freezing funds. With increased uncertainty among investors, we will likely see a further pull-back in discretionary spending as wealth falls.
Housing market weakens
The housing market is also weakening. House sales remained weak and were 42.4% lower in June 2008 compared to a year ago. The median number of days to sell a house has increased to 51 days and is up 77% from a year earlier. Median house prices were 3.4% off their peak in November 2007 at $340,000 in June 2008, according to data from the Real Estate Institute of New Zealand.
Weakness in the housing market is currently being reflected in residential building consents. The number of consents excluding apartments fell 13.3% in the June month and have been trending down. With building consents traditionally following house sales with a lag, real residential investment is expected to contract in both the June and September 2008 quarters, subtracting from real GDP growth (Figure 6).
- Figure 6 – House Sales and Real Residential Investment
- Sources: Statistics NZ, REINZ
Increased borrowing costs and weak net migration have contributed to the slowing in the housing market. The two-year fixed rate is currently around 8.95%, up from around 8.2% two years ago. Based on these rates a person with a $200,000 mortgage would pay an extra $29 a week on interest payments alone. The demand for housing has also fallen due to a drop-off in net permanent and long-term migration. There was a net gain of 4,700 permanent and long-term migrants in the 12 months to June 2008, down from a net gain of 10,000 in the 12 months to June 2007. However, net migration remains moderately positive and higher than forecast at the Budget Update as the increase in arrivals offset the increase in departures.
Export volumes are falling
Net exports are expected to detract from real GDP growth in the June quarter as exports fell and imports increased, according to merchandise trade data.
Export values fell 0.5% in the June 2008 quarter, seasonally adjusted. With the ANZ commodity price index (in New Zealand dollar terms) increasing in the June quarter, this suggests that most of the decline in exports was volume based. Falling dairy exports, partly offset by higher crude oil exports, were the main contributor to the fall in total exports. Dairy export volumes fell 15.2% in the June quarter and reflect the impact of the drought on agricultural production. The value of crude oil exports rose 56.6% in the quarter and was due to higher oil prices and a recovery in volumes from the timing of shipments.
Imports grew 8.5% in the June quarter due to large one-off capital imports (oil related) and large aircraft imports. Consumption imports increased 3.1% in the June quarter. This increase was surprising given the weak retail environment and may lead to more discounting than normal in order to avoid a large build up of stock. Overall the merchandise trade deficit in the 12 months to June fell to $4.5 billion from $4.8 billion in the 12 months to May 2008 (Figure 7).
- Figure 7 – Merchandise Trade – 12 month totals
- Source: Statistics NZ
Inflation will ease in the medium term
With demand and capacity constraints easing, inflation will fall in the medium term. The Reserve Bank cut the Official Cash Rate (OCR) by 25 basis points to 8.0%, the first cut since June 2003 (Figure 8). Immediately following the cut the New Zealand dollar fell 1% across the board with the Trade Weighted Index falling from 66.9 to 66.3.
- Figure 8 – Official Cash Rate
- Source: Reserve Bank of New Zealand
In reducing the OCR, Governor Bollard noted that “the cost of funds raised abroad by banks has been rising in recent months as the international financial situation has deteriorated.” He also noted that “today’s cut will help to mitigate the effect of these increases on the actual borrowing costs paid by firms and households.” Following the announcement, banks have generally reduced their two-year fixed mortgage rates by around 25 basis points to 8.95%. This reduction in the two-year rate was somewhat surprising given that the global credit squeeze has increased the premium that banks pay for funding offshore. However, this reduction could reflect competition among banks and the easing bias in the Reserve Bank’s statement, “Provided that the outlook for inflation continues to improve and there is no excessive exchange rate depreciation, we would expect to lower the OCR further.”
The reduction in the two-year fixed rate will provide some relief for households in that those rolling over their fixed term loans will be paying less in interest than they otherwise would have. The combined effects of tax cuts on 1 October 2008, recovery from the drought, high export prices, the weakening New Zealand dollar and more reductions in the OCR should see quarterly growth pick up in the December quarter and early next year.
Key data to be released in August relate to the labour market and retail sales. The labour market data will be watched closely to see how employment and unemployment have responded to an easing in demand and whether wage pressures are easing. These will provide further information on the strength of the economy.
Special Topic: Global economic outlook
The world economy was not as weak in the first half of 2008 as forecast earlier in the year. However, considerable uncertainty remains and the current outlook is for further weakness in the second half of 2008 as the global economy is hit by the twin shocks of higher commodity prices and a credit crisis. This special topic provides an update on the outlook for the global economy.
Growth forecasts revised down in early 2008
The slowdown in global growth started in the second half of 2007 following the development of the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the United States (US). In early 2008 fears increased that the financial turmoil would have a significant impact on the real economy. In January the International Monetary Fund (IMF) lowered its forecasts for global growth in 2008 from 4.4% to 4.1%, down from 4.9% estimated for 2007. In April the IMF revised its forecast for global growth in 2008 down further to 3.7%. These forecasts included four quarters of negative growth in the US in 2008.
Activity in first half of 2008 above expectation
Economic activity in the US was not as weak as expected in the first half of 2008. Economic growth in the March quarter was 1.0% at an annual rate and the advance estimate of June quarter growth was 1.9%, but growth in the final quarter of 2007 was revised down to -0.2%.
Economic growth in the European Union (EU) in the first quarter of 2008 was strong at 0.7% (quarterly increase), but is expected to be weak – possibly even negative – in the second quarter. Some EU countries have already experienced a contraction in the March quarter. Growth in the United Kingdom (UK) was 0.3% in the March quarter and 0.2% in June. Japan recorded growth of 0.8% in the March quarter and China’s output increased by 10.1% in the year to June, only slightly slower than in the year to March.
Inflation increased sharply in developed economies as increases in commodity prices (particularly for food and oil) flowed through to final consumer prices. Inflation in the US in the year to June 2008 was 5.0%, the EU recorded 4.0% inflation and the UK 3.8%. Japan recorded inflation of 2.0% in the year to June 2008 and in China inflation eased to 7.1% in the year to June as the rate of increase in local food prices eased.
Further turmoil in financial markets
Recent developments in financial markets in the US have shown that the worst of the financial crisis is not over yet. US financial institutions Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which guarantee approximately 50% of home loans in the US, suffered a sharp fall in their share prices and were rescued by the US government. At the same time, a large bank, IndyMac, suffered a run on its funds and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation took control of it.
Since mid-July, when these events occurred, many firms have reported their second quarter results. For the financial sector these have generally been weak, with many banks reporting large write-downs. Some other firms have also reported poor results, including IT firms and car manufacturers hit by low demand as a result of high petrol prices. These company reports have resulted in a general easing in share values with the S&P 500 index falling 17.3% from 1468 on 1 January to a low of 1215 in mid-July (Figure 9).
Figure 9 - US share prices (S&P 500)
- Source: Datastream
Latest indicators point to further weakness in the EU and UK
The latest economic indicators point to some recovery in the US in the second half of 2008, but further weakness in the EU and the UK as the effects of the financial crisis and high commodity prices extend to those economies. In the US, there have been some signs of stabilisation in the housing market recently (although it is still weak), consumer confidence surveys have surprised on the positive side and industrial production increased 0.5% in June. However, it is not clear yet that the US economy has turned the corner.
Prospects for the EU and UK, on the other hand, are looking weaker. Industrial production in the Euro zone fell 1.9% in May, its largest monthly fall since 1989, pointing to the possibility of a contraction in economic activity in the June quarter. Higher costs and weakening final demand are placing firms under pressure and the high value of the Euro is curtailing export growth.
Industrial production also fell sharply in the UK in May as firms face large cost increases and weakening demand. High inflation is eroding consumers’ purchasing power, house prices have fallen over the past year and the labour market is showing signs of weakening.
Oil prices have eased from recent peaks
Oil prices reached new highs of more than US$145/barrel in July 2008, but eased towards the end of the month (Figure 10). The peak in prices was due to political tensions in the Middle East, a storm which threatened oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico and other risks to supply.
Figure 10 - Oil prices (West Texas Intermediate)
- Source: Datastream
Prices eased as these threats dissipated and as perceptions of demand changed. It is becoming apparent that the high prices are having an effect on demand (e.g. fuel consumption in the US is down), the economic outlook is weakening and some developing countries reduced their subsidies on fuel recently, exposing consumers to more market-related prices which are likely to curtail demand. However, it is too early to say that oil prices have peaked, but they do seem to be less likely to increase than previously.
Forecasts revised to reflect recent outcomes
Although economic activity was generally stronger in the first half of the year than previously expected, most forecasters still expect a further slowdown in growth. Consensus Forecasts for our top 20 trading partners have fallen from 3.3% and 3.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively in March to 3.2% and 3.1% respectively in July. The latest forecasts are close to our assumptions in the Budget Update, so do not imply any further weakness than already factored in then.
The IMF has revised up its April forecasts for world economic growth in 2008 from 3.7% to 4.1% to take account of the stronger-than-expected first half of the year, but revised up 2009’s growth only 0.1% point to 3.9%. They acknowledge that economic activity has been stronger so far in 2008 than they previously thought, but they still consider that growth will slow in the second half of 2008 in the US, euro area and Japan before rebounding in 2009. Growth is also expected to decline in emerging and developing economies in 2008 – 2009, but not by as much as in developed economies. In its July Global Financial Stability Report, the IMF also warned of considerable risk to the global economy from the recent financial market turmoil, especially when combined with high inflation.
These latest international forecasts point to a protracted downturn in the world economy. However, the rate of growth expected over the next 1-2 years is similar to our assumption in the Budget Update.
- A monthly survey of 240 forecasters worldwide.
New Zealand Key Economic Data
|Gross Domestic Product (GDP)|
|Real production GDP||qtr % chg ||0.6||1.3||0.8||0.5||0.8||-0.3||...|
|Real production GDP||ann ave % chg||1.6||1.6||2.1||2.7||3.1||3.0||...|
|Real private consumption||qtr % chg ||1.3||1.9||0.4||0.5||0.5||-0.4||...|
|Real private consumption||ann ave % chg||2.6||2.8||3.4||3.9||4.1||3.3||...|
|Real public consumption||qtr % chg ||0.8||0.7||0.9||1.8||0.2||1.1||...|
|Real public consumption||ann ave % chg||4.7||4.4||4.5||4.4||4.2||4.2||...|
|Real residential investment||qtr % chg ||1.2||0.7||3.0||1.7||-2.3||-5.5||...|
|Real residential investment||ann ave % chg||-3.2||-2.7||1.6||3.6||4.4||3.7||...|
|Real non-residential investment||qtr % chg ||0.7||3.2||-1.3||0.1||5.1||-1.2||...|
|Real non-residential investment||ann ave % chg||-0.9||-1.6||0.8||2.3||4.7||4.4||...|
|Export volumes||qtr % chg ||-2.7||3.1||-1.2||0.0||4.5||-1.8||...|
|Export volumes||ann ave % chg||1.7||3.1||3.4||2.2||3.4||2.3||...|
|Import volumes||qtr % chg ||1.1||4.2||2.6||0.8||3.8||1.2||...|
|Import volumes||ann ave % chg||-2.8||-1.7||1.7||5.4||8.8||9.7||...|
|Nominal GDP - expenditure basis||ann ave % chg||4.9||5.2||6.5||7.2||7.4||7.4||...|
|Real GDP per capita||ann ave % chg||0.4||0.4||0.9||1.5||2.0||1.9||...|
|Real Gross National Disposable Income||ann ave % chg||0.5||1.7||2.9||3.6||5.0||5.3||...|
|Current account balance (annual)||NZ$ millions||-14004||-13522||-13682||-14280||-13837||-13787||...|
|Current account balance (annual)||% of GDP||-8.6||-8.2||-8.1||-8.3||-7.9||-7.8||...|
|Investment income balance (annual)||NZ$ millions||-12092||-11863||-11880||-12329||-12437||-13123||...|
|Merchandise terms of trade||qtr % chg||2.5||1.5||0.4||3.7||2.7||4.1||...|
|Merchandise terms of trade||ann % chg||3.8||4.5||2.3||8.4||8.5||11.3||...|
|CPI inflation||qtr % chg||-0.2||0.5||1.0||0.5||1.2||0.7||1.6|
|CPI inflation||ann % chg||2.6||2.5||2.0||1.8||3.2||3.4||4.0|
|Tradable inflation||ann % chg||1.1||0.8||-0.5||-0.3||2.8||3.4||4.8|
|Non-tradable inflation||ann % chg||3.9||4.0||4.1||3.7||3.5||3.5||3.4|
|GDP deflator||ann % chg||2.9||3.1||4.2||3.9||5.6||5.8||...|
|Consumption deflator||ann % chg||2.7||2.0||1.5||1.2||2.0||2.5||...|
|Employment (HLFS)||qtr % chg ||0.0||1.4||0.5||-0.3||0.9||-1.3||...|
|Employment (HLFS)||ann % chg ||1.4||1.8||1.5||1.6||2.5||-0.2||...|
|Unemployment rate||% ||3.8||3.7||3.6||3.5||3.4||3.6||...|
|Participation rate||% ||68.0||68.6||68.8||68.3||68.6||67.7||...|
|LCI salary & wage rates - total (adjusted) ||qtr % chg||0.9||0.6||0.6||1.0||1.0||0.8||...|
|LCI salary & wage rates - total (adjusted)||ann % chg||3.2||3.2||3.1||3.1||3.3||3.4||...|
|LCI salary & wage rates - total (unadjusted) ||qtr % chg||1.3||0.8||1.0||1.7||1.4||1.2||...|
|LCI salary & wage rates - total (unadjusted||ann % chg||4.9||4.5||4.6||4.8||5.0||5.4||...|
|QES average hourly earnings - total ||qtr % chg||0.8||1.0||0.8||1.3||1.0||1.5||...|
|QES average hourly earnings - total||ann % chg||5.0||4.6||4.3||4.0||4.2||4.6||...|
|Labour productivity ||ann ave % chg||0.8||1.0||1.4||1.9||2.6||3.1||...|
|WMM - consumer confidence ||Index||120||118||111||114||110||97||82|
|QSBO - general business situation ||net %||3.5||-15.3||-36.6||-27.3||-26.4||-64.1||-63.7|
|QSBO - own activity outlook ||net %||15.0||16.1||8.8||15.4||13.9||-9.7||-22.9|
|Merchandise trade - exports||mth % chg ||-0.1||4.5||-19.1||15.0||-11.0||16.6||...|
|Merchandise trade - exports||ann % chg ||24.0||30.5||3.2||20.8||11.7||31.8||...|
|Merchandise trade - imports||mth % chg ||-3.0||6.3||-3.9||10.8||-2.8||0.7||...|
|Merchandise trade - imports||ann % chg ||2.4||15.9||7.2||21.5||16.7||17.4||...|
|Merchandise trade balance (12 month total)||NZ$ million||-4793||-4422||-4526||-4599||-4775||-4480||...|
|Visitor arrivals||number ||206240||216880||215330||189920||207180||204270||...|
|Visitor departures||number ||208570||211040||211110||201890||203560||209210||...|
|Dwelling consents - residential||mth % chg ||3.1||-6.1||-13.4||80.5||-40.8||-20.2||...|
|Dwelling consents - residential||ann % chg ||-5.3||-17.7||-27.3||30.6||-26.5||-47.1||...|
|House sales - dwellings||mth % chg ||-1.7||-0.8||-32.6||12.5||-16.5||15.2||...|
|House sales - dwellings||ann % chg ||-31.4||-31.9||-53.4||-44.9||-53.2||-42.4||...|
|REINZ - median dwelling price||mth % chg||-0.6||-0.8||1.2||-1.1||0.2||-0.9||...|
|REINZ - median dwelling price||ann % chg||4.0||0.8||1.6||-1.2||-1.3||-2.2||...|
|Core retail sales||mth % chg ||0.3||0.2||-0.4||-0.3||0.7||...||...|
|Core retail sales||ann % chg ||4.0||2.0||0.8||1.3||1.7||...||...|
|Total retail sales||mth % chg ||0.2||-0.6||-1.1||1.2||-1.2||...||...|
|Total retail sales||ann % chg ||5.9||3.3||0.8||3.1||1.1||...||...|
|New car registrations||mth % chg ||10.4||-8.9||-12.8||9.3||-12.6||3.0||...|
|New car registrations||ann % chg||1.7||1.9||-13.2||-1.1||-20.6||-15.9||...|
|Electronic card transactions - total retail||mth % chg ||0.3||0.1||0.1||-0.2||1.2||-0.4||...|
|Electronic card transactions - total retail||ann % chg||8.7||10.7||4.4||6.0||8.7||2.6||...|
|Permanent & long-term arrivals||number ||6720||7290||7220||7300||7860||7580||...|
|Permanent & long-term departures||number ||6620||7040||6690||6820||6900||7090||...|
|Net PLT migration (12 month total)||number||4799||4643||4678||4666||4931||4732||...|
|Brent oil price||US$/Barrel||92.09||94.72||103.16||110.03||123.86||132.76||134.04|
|WTI oil price||US$/Barrel||92.98||95.36||105.50||112.34||125.67||133.93||134.41|
|ANZ NZ commodity price index||mth % chg||-1.8||-2.2||2.1||1.1||2.5||2.1||...|
|ANZ NZ commodity price index||ann % chg||15.9||11.4||12.0||13.4||13.2||12.5||...|
|ANZ world commodity price index||mth % chg||-1.4||1.1||2.0||-0.3||1.0||-0.1||...|
|ANZ world commodity price index||ann % chg||27.4||26.9||26.9||20.7||18.7||11.8||...|
|Trade weighted index (TWI)||June 1979 = 1002||71.24||72.96||71.58||70.31||69.32||68.11||67.18|
|Official cash rate (OCR)||%||8.25||8.25||8.25||8.25||8.25||8.25||8.00|
|90 day bank bill rate||% ||8.75||8.82||8.91||8.87||8.71||8.68||8.46|
|10 year govt bond rate||% ||6.28||6.4||6.36||6.48||6.43||6.42||6.18|
|National Bank - business confidence||net %||-31.4||-43.9||-57.9||-54.8||-49.7||-38.7||-43.2|
|National Bank - activity outlook||net %||13.6||2.4||-6.4||-3.8||-4.4||-4.0||-8.2|
|One News  - consumer confidence||net %||-13||-16||-25||-34||-33||-25||-27|
- qtr % chg
- quarterly percent change
- mth % chg
- monthly percent change
- ann % chg
- annual percent change
- ann ave % chg
- annual average percent change
-  Seasonally adjusted
-  Average (11am)
-  Westpac McDermott Miller
-  Quarterly Survey of Business Opinion
-  One News Colmar Brunton
-  Ordinary time
-  Production GDP divided by HLFS hours worked
Sources: Statistics New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, National Bank of New Zealand, NZIER, ANZ, Datastream, Westpac McDermott Miller, One News Colmar Brunton.